http://www.rhci-online.net/radiogram/radiogram.htm

 


 

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██║██████╔╝╚██████╗    ██║  ██║██║  ██║██████╔╝██║╚██████╔╝╚██████╔╝██║  ██║██║  ██║██║ ╚═╝ ██║
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                                                                       http://ibcradio.webs.com/

 

 

RSID: <<2017-12-13T20:25Z MFSK-32 @ RADIO STUDIO X -STREAM-1584000+1859>>




START


IBC - ITALIAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION
mail: ibc@europe.com
http://www.ibcradio.webs.com
FB: @ITALIANBROADCASTINGCORPORATION
TW: @RADIOIBC

"IBC DIGITAL" "IBC DIGITAL"

===========================
*** 4 2 5 D X N E W S ***
**** DX INFORMATION ****
===========================
Edited by I1JQJ & IK1ADH

3B7 - 3B7A is the callsign issued to the April 2018 DXpedition to the
     Saint Brandon Islands (AF-015), the team announced in
     their latest Press Release dated 28 November. Eight experienced
     operators will be active for two weeks with seven stations on 160-6
     metres CW, SSB and RTTY. See http://www.saintbrandondx.com for more
     information.
3D2/R - 3D2AG, DJ9RR, DK2AMM, DL6JGN and PA3EWP will be active as 3D2EU
     from Rotuma (OC-060) from 23 February to 16 March
     (http://www.rotuma2018.de/). Plans are to be QRV on 160-10 metres
     CW, SSB and digital modes with two stations from two different
     operating locations. If they have reliable access to the Internet,
     they will upload their logs to Club Log on a daily basis. Otherwise
     the complete log will be uploaded upon their return home. QSL via
     Club Log's OQRS and LoTW, or via DK2AMM (direct or bureau).

4X - Seven special callsigns are expected to be QRV on 22-24 December
     from different locations: 4X0XMAS from Shivta, 4X2XMAS from Mount
     Tabor, 4X3XMAS from Caesarea, 4X4XMAS from Nazareth, 4X6XMAS from
     Arbel, 4X7XMAS from Be'er Sheva and 4X9XMAS from Nitzana. QSL via
     LoTW and eQSL. See qrz.com for information about the "Holyland
     Christianity On The Air" award. [TNX 4Z4DX]
6W - Jacques, F6HMJ will be active as 6W7/F6HMJ from Senegal from 21
     December to 15 January. He will operate CW and some SSB on 20-10
     metres; activity on the lower bands will depend on local
     conditions.
CE0Y - A large German team (DH8WR, DJ9KH, DL2AWG, DL2RNS, DL4SVA, DL5CW,
     DL7JOM, DL7VEE, DM2AUJ and DM3BJ) will be active as XR0YD from
     Easter Island (SA-001) on 2-15 March. They will run three stations
     on 160-10 metres CW, SSB, RTTY and FT8. QSL via Club Log's OQRS,
     via DL4SVA (direct or bureau) and eventually LoTW.
     See http://xr0yd.mydx.de for more information.
     HP - HP1DRK, HP1MAC, HP1RIS and HP1YLS will be active again as H91IT
     from Taboga Island (NA-072), Panama on 6-9 January 2018. They will
     operate SSB and CW on 40-10 metres. QSL direct to HP1RCP.
VP5 - John, N9EAJ will be active as VP5/N9EAJ from Grand Turk (NA-003)
     from 27 December to 4 February. He will operate SSB and CW on 40-10
     metres, possibly also on 80 metres. He will post his log to LoTW
     and Club Log.


"IBC DIGITAL" "IBC DIGITAL"

END END

 

 

 



 


 

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                                                               http://www.kbcradio.eu/

 

 


RSID: <<2017-12-16T15:30Z MFSK-32 @ 9400000+1500>>

 


The Christmas tree in front of the US Capitol, about a block away
from where I worked until a few months ago ...

Sending Pic:72x126C;




Please report decode to themightykbc@gmail.com
 


 


 

 


 

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                                                             http://swradiogram.net/

 

 

 

RSID: <<2017-12-16T16:01Z MFSK-32 @ 9400000+1500>>



Welcome to program 26 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK32
except where noted:

  1:29 Program preview (now)
  2:52 Books for international radio listeners*
  9:34 8PSK-125FL: Electronic waste
11:13 8PSK-250FL: Journalist errors
12:46 8PSK-500F (Flamp): China internet conference**
15:46 MFSK32: Radio telescope in Western Australia*
21:46 Most distant massive black hole*
25:35 Closing announcements*

* with image

** Flamp should be activated before this story in transmitted


Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net

And visit http://swradiogram.net

Twitter: @SWRadiogram





BOOKS FOR LISTENERS

New editions of books of interest to international radio
listeners are now available ...


World Radio TV Handbook 2018

The famous "WRTH" has been respected for seven decades as the
definitive source of broadcast radio information. With the help
of an international network of contributors, this invaluable
annual provides the latest information on mediumwave, shortwave,
and FM broadcasts and broadcasters. You also get propagation
predictions and maps. Country-by-country lists of services and
broadcasters, winter shortwave frequencies, an expanded
clandestine section, and international and domestic broadcasts by
frequency and language, television broadcasters, broadcaster
abbreviations, DX club information, Internet resources — all this
and much more has been packed into this remarkable one-volume
672-page resource.

http://www.wrth.com/
https://www.universal-radio.com/catalog/books/2018.html

 


The Worldwide Listening Guide, 8th edition
John Figliozzi

Modeled on the author's popular Worldwide Shortwave Listening
Guide, this new book explains radio listening in all of today's
formats: "live," on-demand, podcast, terrestrial, satellite,
Internet, digital, analog, AM, FM, shortwave and WiFi. Here is a
comprehensive guide to what can be heard how, where and when. The
introductory section explains the many new ways to enjoy world
band radio. The main section details programing available to you
on an hour-by-hour basis. It actually shows program names, so you
may quickly scan it for items of interest. It discusses in
detail the many ways a listener can dial into programs using
their computers, WiFi radios, traditional shortwave sets, and
more. Wire-bound to open flat in an easy-to-use format. 192
pages.

https://www.universal-radio.com/catalog/books/6521.html

 


International Shortwave Broadcast Guide:
Winter 2017-2018 / 9th Edition Kindle Edition
Gayle Van Horn/Larry Van Horn

The ISWBG is a 24-hour station/frequency guide to all of the
known longwave, selected mediumwave and shortwave radio stations
currently broadcasting at time of publication. This unique radio
hobby resource is the only radio hobby publication that has
by-hour station schedules that include all language services,
frequencies and world target areas. ISWBG includes includes a
new, exclusive Hot HF 1000+ non-broadcast frequency list. Also
included in this edition is increased frequency and station
coverage of longwave broadcasters, selected medium wave broadcast
frequencies used by international broadcasters, all known
international standard time and frequency stations transmitting
worldwide, and some selected spy numbers broadcasts.

https://www.amazon.com/International-Shortwave-Broadcast-Guide-2017-2018-ebook/dp/B077SF99SS/
http://mt-shortwave.blogspot.com/


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Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net

Shortwave Radiogram now changes to 8PSK-125FL ...
 

 

 

 

 


RSID: <<2017-12-16T16:09Z 8PSK-125FL @ 9400000+1500>>


This is Shortwave Radiogram in 8PSK-125FL

Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net
 



Electronic waste reaches record high of 45 million tons

Only 20 percent of electronic waste was recycled in 2016, despite
67 nations having e-waste legislation. Electronic waste is
expected to reach 52.2 million tons in 2021.

Deutsche Welle
13 December 2017

Electronic waste rose to a record 45 million tons worldwide in
2016, a United Nations-backed study showed on Wednesday.

The weight of "e-waste" in 2016 was equivalent to about 4,500
Eiffel Towers, according to the joint study by the UN University,
the International Telecommunication Union and the International
Solid Waste Association.

The study said rising incomes and falling prices for electronic
items from solar panels to fridges were to blame for the 8
percent increase in e-waste, which sat at 41 million tons in
2014. E-waste was defined as any item of trash with a plug or a
battery.

Raw scrapped materials, including gold, silver, copper, platinum
and palladium, were worth an estimated €55 billion ($65 billion)
in 2016.

Despite 66 percent of the world's population being covered by
e-waste legislation, most e-waste, which can pose serious risks
to human health and the environment, ends up as rubbish in
landfills rather than being recycled or properly discarded.

Rüdiger Kühr, head of the UN University's Sustainable Cycles
Programme, told Reuters this was a surprise considering 67
nations, covering two-thirds of the world's population, had
legislation about processing e-waste.

"What is still shocking ... is that only 20 percent [of e-waste]
is going in the official collection and recycling schemes," Kühr
said.

E-waste was projected to climb to 52.2 million tons in 2021, the
study said.

The report said many people threw out gadgets to buy an upgraded
model or because repairs of anything from a toaster to a
smartphone were more expensive than buying a replacement.

China was the biggest source of the scrap with 7.2 million tons
in 2016, ahead of the United States.

Australia, New Zealand generated the highest amounts of e-waste
per inhabitant at 17.3 kilos each, but only 6 percent were
formally collected and recycled.

Europe had the highest collection rates at 35 percent.

Don't bin it, fix it!

The report comes as the holiday season fast approaches. Kühr
urged Christmas shoppers to think about e-waste when choosing
gifts.

"In Christmas shopping, more and more equipment comes with a plug
or battery ... facilitating the increase of the e-waste
mountain," Kühr said.

law/sms (AP, dpa, Reuters)

http://www.dw.com/en/electronic-waste-reaches-record-high-of-45-million-tons/a-41784177


Shortwave Radiogram now changes to 8PSK-250FL ...
 

 

 

 


RSID: <<2017-12-16T16:11Z 8PSK-250FL @ 9400000+1500>>



Journalists Consider Response to Errors After Trump Attacks

Associated Press via voanews.com
12 December 2017

NEW YORK - Some stinging mistakes in stories involving President
Donald Trump have given him fresh ammunition in his battle
against the media while raising questions about whether news
organizations need to peel back the curtain on how they operate.

The president tweeted six attacks on what he calls "fake news"
over the weekend, saying the "out of control" media puts out
purposely false and defamatory stories. That led to a contentious
exchange at Monday's White House press briefing between press
secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders and CNN's Jim Acosta.

"Journalists make honest mistakes," Acosta said. "That doesn't
make them fake news."

When Sanders responded that reporters should own up to their
mistakes, one said, "we do."

"Sometimes, but a lot of times you don't," she said. "There's a
very big difference between honest mistakes and purposely
misleading the American people."

Trump has his own issues: the Washington Post's fact-checking
blog counted 1,628 false or misleading claims made by the
president in his first 298 days in office.

Still, it was an undeniably bad week for news organizations
reporting on investigations into the Trump campaigns dealings
with Russia. ABC News suspended Brian Ross for incorrectly
reporting the timing of a Trump directive to Michael Flynn.
Several news outlets wrongly reported that Trump and his family's
bank records were the subject of the special prosecutor's
subpoena. And CNN corrected a story on the timing of a tip to the
Trump campaign about damaging information on Democrats.

With the hyper-speed of the modern news environment, the stories
spread swiftly beyond their original source.

News organizations corrected themselves but fell short in their
explanations, said Kathleen Hall Jamieson, a communications
professor and the director of the Annenberg Public Policy Center
at the University of Pennsylvania.

"When a mistake is made, the public really needs to understand
why it was made and what corrections have been put in place to
make sure it doesn't happen again," she said.

In announcing Ross' four-week suspension, ABC News issued a
two-paragraph statement saying the story "had not been fully
vetted through our editorial standards process." Executives were
not made available to explain to the public what exactly that
meant.

Ironically, the only time ABC News President James Goldston's
reaction to the error was heard came from a leaked tape of him
talking to staff members obtained by CNN's media reporting team.

Sanders specifically cited Ross' story when asked for an example
of one that was purposely misleading.

When CNN made its mistake a week later, its own executives did
not talk publicly about it - even when the topic was discussed on
the network's weekend show about the media, "Reliable Sources."

Network representatives, speaking without allowing a name to be
attached, blamed the error on sources that provided information
to reporters Manu Raju and Jeremy Herb. That still left
questions: New York University journalism professor Jay Rosen
wondered, for example, how it was possible that different sources
made the same error about a date.

CNN earlier this year fired journalists involved in a discredited
story about former Trump aide Anthony Scaramucci. CNN said -
again, without allowing a name to be attached- Raju and Herb
followed the network's procedures for sensitive stories. In the
Scaramucci case, the reporters didn't. Again, it was up to
consumers to decipher precisely what that meant.

CNN's communications staff, responding Monday to Trump's tweet
that he once called anchor Don Lemon "the dumbest man on
television," said "in a world where bullies torment kids on
social media to devastating effect on a regular basis with
insults and name calling, it is sad to see our president engaging
in the very same behavior himself. Leaders should lead by
example."

With politicians targeting journalists, it is more important than
ever to be clear, Jamieson said. People need to know that there
are consequences when reporters make mistakes, and what those
consequences are, she said.

She pointed to The Washington Post, which last Friday began what
it said will be an occasional series of videos about its
operations. The first, titled "How to Be a Reporter," featured
interviews with two journalists who worked on the newspaper's
story about Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore dating young
girls. The reporters explained how they were tipped to the story
and went about reporting it.

"As corny as it sounds, the agenda is to find out what the
reality is, what the truth is of the story," said reporter
Stephanie McCrummen." That's it."

Over the weekend, Trump demanded an apology from the Post for a
photo that he said was deceptive about the number of people who
attended his Florida rally, since it had been taken while people
were waiting outside. Post reporter Dave Weigel apologized; Trump
later said he should be fired.

On Monday, Trump said a Times story exaggerated the amount of
time he watched television each day, and that he seldom watched
CNN or MSNBC. The Times said its story was based on interviews
with 60 people, "including many who interact with President Trump
every day."

https://www.voanews.com/a/journalists-under-fire-for-incorrect-stories/4159979.html


Shortwave Radiogram now changes to 8PSK-500F
 

 


RSID: <<2017-12-16T16:12Z 8PSK-500F @ 9400000+1500>>
 

 

first cycle

 

 

second cycle

 

 

third cycle

 

 

fourth cycle

 

Shortwave Radiogram listeners DE KD9XB

<PROG 18 C5DB>{5BD7}FLAMP 2.2.03
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
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<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
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<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<DATA 248 6C80>{5BD7:1}




VOA NEWS

China Displays Clout at Internet Conference But Some Doubts
Remain

December 12, 2017 5:12 AM

Saibal Dasgupta
12 December 2017

BEIJING - China made an impressive display of its clout in the
digital economy d
<DATA 248 BAB1>{5BD7:2}uring a three-day internet conference in Beijing
last week by pulling together the participation of U.N. agencies,
the World Telecom Union and CEOs of major US based IT companies
like Google, Apple and Cisco System.

The conference sta
<DATA 248 8576>{5BD7:3}rted with a message from Chinese president Xi
Jinping who said, "China would never close its doors. They will
only be open wider and wider going forward."

But at the same time, Xi and Wang Huning, one of the ruling
Communist Party's s
<DATA 248 FA21>{5BD7:4}even most powerful men, emphasized the need
for "cyber sovereignty," which allows individual countries to
establish cyber boundaries to protect their respective sovereign
interests.

Xi said that besides benefits, "the internet has als
<DATA 248 82AC>{5BD7:5}o brought
many new challenges to the sovereignty, security and development
interests of nations across the world."

The Cyber Administration of China, which organized the World
Internet Conference in Wuzhen city, was trying to obtain p
<DATA 248 041E>{5BD7:6}ublic
confirmation about its Internet policies. This was also the first
time the annual conference, which started in 2014, had attracted
a high-profile attendance from heads of major international
companies and agencies.

Analysts are
<DATA 248 6379>{5BD7:7} skeptical the conference helped to boost China's
quest to influence rulemaking in the digital world. Many have
noted that none of the foreign speakers specifically referred to
Internet controls in China, which include bans on U.S. based
<DATA 248 4822>{5BD7:8}
services like Google, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube.

"I certainly don't see (this) as China's role as a rule setting
has expanded. The regulatory bodies and standards actually
usually doesn't apply to China," Jacob Cooke, CEO of cons
<DATA 248 EACC>{5BD7:9}ulting
firm, Web Presence in China told VOA. "There is actually a
noticeable lack of Chinese presence... . And, likewise here there
is no international presence in terms of regulatory body or rules
and regulations."

Apple's challeng
<DATA 249 6B26>{5BD7:10}e

Apple recently removed hundreds of apps from its app store in
China to adhere to the Chinese great firewall of censorship.
Apple CEO Tim Cook did not mention that at the conference but
said Apple shared the same vision with China on
<DATA 249 92B8>{5BD7:11} open Internet.

"The theme of this conference - developing a digital economy for
openness and shared benefits - is a vision we at Apple share," Cook
said adding, "We are proud to have worked alongside many of our
partners in China to
<DATA 249 F998>{5BD7:12}help build a community that will join a
common future in cyberspace."

But in the wake of Apple's decisions to remove APPS and similar
moves, questions have surfaced about whether American CEOs are
indirectly endorsing China's censorsh
<DATA 249 51BD>{5BD7:13}ip methods in their
eagerness to obtain a larger slice of the country's lucrative
market.

Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy specifically targeted the Apple
chief for failing to promote freedom of expression. "Apple is
clearly a force
<DATA 249 7D57>{5BD7:14}for good in China, but I also believe it and
other tech companies must continue to push back on Chinese
suppression of free expression," Leahy said.

Cook responded with a statement saying, "Each country in the
world decides their laws
<DATA 249 A06B>{5BD7:15} and their regulations, and so your
choice is do you participate or stand on the sideline and yell at
how things should be.... And my own view, very strongly, is that
you show up and you participate, you go in the arena. Because
nothing
<DATA 249 E854>{5BD7:16} changes from sideline."

Cooke of Web Presence in China agrees, adding that such questions
are not Apple's responsibility.

"If you want do to business in a country you got to obey rules
and laws of that country. That's with any busi
<DATA 249 B45C>{5BD7:17}ness. I mean it is
not up to you to criticize or change the laws that serve the
politicians," Cooke said.

Robert Elliot Kahn, regarded by many as father of the Internet
for co-inventing Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet
<DATA 249 10CC>{5BD7:18}
Protocol (IP) views the controversy over China's internet
restrictions in a somewhat different light.

"Governments are going to impose their own rules and regulations;
that's the way the world works," he told VOA on the sidelines of
<DATA 249 A99C>{5BD7:19}
the conference. "But if we can make it easier for people to build
better products and services, to get more services to the public
and is supported by people and governments around the world, I
think that's progress for humanity."

Se
<DATA 249 6E59>{5BD7:20}eking business

It was apparent from the meeting that western businessmen,
including Cook and Google CEO Sudar Pichai, were doing what they
can to expand in the Chinese market. Although Google's browser
and Gmail is banned in China and
<DATA 249 CB99>{5BD7:21} the company left China more than
seven years ago, Bloomberg recently reported that the company was
making a comeback investing artificial intelligence.

"A lot of work Google does is to help Chinese companies. Many
small and medium-si
<DATA 249 B779>{5BD7:22}zed businesses in China take advantage of
Google to get their products to many other countries outside of
China," Pichai said.

Cook pointed out that Apple's app store has helped give China's
1.8 million developers total earnings worth
<DATA 249 D400>{5BD7:23} $16.9 billion, which
is the highest earned by developers in any country.

In a quote widely used in state media Cook said, "many people see
China as a big market, but for us the main attraction is the
quality of the people."

But in
<DATA 249 EEC6>{5BD7:24} the end, analysts note that China's influence remains
limited to the extent of the market it can offer to foreign
companies and this is limited by the fact that several giant
Chinese companies are jostling to fill every inch of the spac
<DATA 116 55DD>{5BD7:25}e.

https://www.voanews.com/a/china-internet-conference-brings-tech-companies-together/4160056.html

^r



<CNTL 10 ADE3>{5BD7:EOF}
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<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<DATA 248 6C80>{5BD7:1}




VOA NEWS

China Displays Clout at Internet Conference But Some Doubts
Remain

December 12, 2017 5:12 AM

Saibal Dasgupta
12 December 2017

BEIJING - China made an impressive display of its clout in the
digital economy d
<DATA 248 BAB1>{5BD7:2}uring a three-day internet conference in Beijing
last week by pulling together the participation of U.N. agencies,
the World Telecom Union and CEOs of major US based IT companies
like Google, Apple and Cisco System.

The conference sta
<DATA 248 8576>{5BD7:3}rted with a message from Chinese president Xi
Jinping who said, "China would never close its doors. They will
only be open wider and wider going forward."

But at the same time, Xi and Wang Huning, one of the ruling
Communist Party's s
<DATA 248 FA21>{5BD7:4}even most powerful men, emphasized the need
for "cyber sovereignty," which allows individual countries to
establish cyber boundaries to protect their respective sovereign
interests.

Xi said that besides benefits, "the internet has als
<DATA 248 82AC>{5BD7:5}o brought
many new challenges to the sovereignty, security and development
interests of nations across the world."

The Cyber Administration of China, which organized the World
Internet Conference in Wuzhen city, was trying to obtain p
<DATA 248 041E>{5BD7:6}ublic
confirmation about its Internet policies. This was also the first
time the annual conference, which started in 2014, had attracted
a high-profile attendance from heads of major international
companies and agencies.

Analysts are
<DATA 248 6379>{5BD7:7} skeptical the conference helped to boost China's
quest to influence rulemaking in the digital world. Many have
noted that none of the foreign speakers specifically referred to
Internet controls in China, which include bans on U.S. based
<DATA 248 4822>{5BD7:8}
services like Google, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube.

"I certainly don't see (this) as China's role as a rule setting
has expanded. The regulatory bodies and standards actually
usually doesn't apply to China," Jacob Cooke, CEO of cons
<DATA 248 EACC>{5BD7:9}ulting
firm, Web Presence in China told VOA. "There is actually a
noticeable lack of Chinese presence... . And, likewise here there
is no international presence in terms of regulatory body or rules
and regulations."

Apple's challeng
<DATA 249 6B26>{5BD7:10}e

Apple recently removed hundreds of apps from its app store in
China to adhere to the Chinese great firewall of censorship.
Apple CEO Tim Cook did not mention that at the conference but
said Apple shared the same vision with China on
<DATA 249 92B8>{5BD7:11} open Internet.

"The theme of this conference - developing a digital economy for
openness and shared benefits - is a vision we at Apple share," Cook
said adding, "We are proud to have worked alongside many of our
partners in China to
<DATA 249 F998>{5BD7:12}help build a community that will join a
common future in cyberspace."

But in the wake of Apple's decisions to remove APPS and similar
moves, questions have surfaced about whether American CEOs are
indirectly endorsing China's censorsh
<DATA 249 51BD>{5BD7:13}ip methods in their
eagerness to obtain a larger slice of the country's lucrative
market.

Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy specifically targeted the Apple
chief for failing to promote freedom of expression. "Apple is
clearly a force
<DATA 249 7D57>{5BD7:14}for good in China, but I also believe it and
other tech companies must continue to push back on Chinese
suppression of free expression," Leahy said.

Cook responded with a statement saying, "Each country in the
world decides their laws
<DATA 249 A06B>{5BD7:15} and their regulations, and so your
choice is do you participate or stand on the sideline and yell at
how things should be.... And my own view, very strongly, is that
you show up and you participate, you go in the arena. Because
nothing
<DATA 249 E854>{5BD7:16} changes from sideline."

Cooke of Web Presence in China agrees, adding that such questions
are not Apple's responsibility.

"If you want do to business in a country you got to obey rules
and laws of that country. That's with any busi
<DATA 249 B45C>{5BD7:17}ness. I mean it is
not up to you to criticize or change the laws that serve the
politicians," Cooke said.

Robert Elliot Kahn, regarded by many as father of the Internet
for co-inventing Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet
<DATA 249 10CC>{5BD7:18}
Protocol (IP) views the controversy over China's internet
restrictions in a somewhat different light.

"Governments are going to impose their own rules and regulations;
that's the way the world works," he told VOA on the sidelines of
<DATA 249 A99C>{5BD7:19}
the conference. "But if we can make it easier for people to build
better products and services, to get more services to the public
and is supported by people and governments around the world, I
think that's progress for humanity."

Se
<DATA 249 6E59>{5BD7:20}eking business

It was apparent from the meeting that western businessmen,
including Cook and Google CEO Sudar Pichai, were doing what they
can to expand in the Chinese market. Although Google's browser
and Gmail is banned in China and
<DATA 249 CB99>{5BD7:21} the company left China more than
seven years ago, Bloomberg recently reported that the company was
making a comeback investing artificial intelligence.

"A lot of work Google does is to help Chinese companies. Many
small and medium-si
<DATA 249 B779>{5BD7:22}zed businesses in China take advantage of
Google to get their products to many other countries outside of
China," Pichai said.

Cook pointed out that Apple's app store has helped give China's
1.8 million developers total earnings worth
<DATA 249 D400>{5BD7:23} $16.9 billion, which
is the highest earned by developers in any country.

In a quote widely used in state media Cook said, "many people see
China as a big market, but for us the main attraction is the
quality of the people."

But in
<DATA 249 EEC6>{5BD7:24} the end, analysts note that China's influence remains
limited to the extent of the market it can offer to foreign
companies and this is limited by the fact that several giant
Chinese companies are jostling to fill every inch of the spac
<DATA 116 55DD>{5BD7:25}e.

https://www.voanews.com/a/china-internet-conference-brings-tech-companies-together/4160056.html

^r



<CNTL 10 ADE3>{5BD7:EOF}
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<DATA 248 6C80>{5BD7:1}




VOA NEWS

China Displays Clout at Internet Conference But Some Doubts
Remain

December 12, 2017 5:12 AM

Saibal Dasgupta
12 December 2017

BEIJING - China made an impressive display of its clout in the
digital economy d
<DATA 248 BAB1>{5BD7:2}uring a three-day internet conference in Beijing
last week by pulling together the participation of U.N. agencies,
the World Telecom Union and CEOs of major US based IT companies
like Google, Apple and Cisco System.

The conference sta
<DATA 248 8576>{5BD7:3}rted with a message from Chinese president Xi
Jinping who said, "China would never close its doors. They will
only be open wider and wider going forward."

But at the same time, Xi and Wang Huning, one of the ruling
Communist Party's s
<DATA 248 FA21>{5BD7:4}even most powerful men, emphasized the need
for "cyber sovereignty," which allows individual countries to
establish cyber boundaries to protect their respective sovereign
interests.

Xi said that besides benefits, "the internet has als
<DATA 248 82AC>{5BD7:5}o brought
many new challenges to the sovereignty, security and development
interests of nations across the world."

The Cyber Administration of China, which organized the World
Internet Conference in Wuzhen city, was trying to obtain p
<DATA 248 041E>{5BD7:6}ublic
confirmation about its Internet policies. This was also the first
time the annual conference, which started in 2014, had attracted
a high-profile attendance from heads of major international
companies and agencies.

Analysts are
<DATA 248 6379>{5BD7:7} skeptical the conference helped to boost China's
quest to influence rulemaking in the digital world. Many have
noted that none of the foreign speakers specifically referred to
Internet controls in China, which include bans on U.S. based
<DATA 248 4822>{5BD7:8}
services like Google, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube.

"I certainly don't see (this) as China's role as a rule setting
has expanded. The regulatory bodies and standards actually
usually doesn't apply to China," Jacob Cooke, CEO of cons
<DATA 248 EACC>{5BD7:9}ulting
firm, Web Presence in China told VOA. "There is actually a
noticeable lack of Chinese presence... . And, likewise here there
is no international presence in terms of regulatory body or rules
and regulations."

Apple's challeng
<DATA 249 6B26>{5BD7:10}e

Apple recently removed hundreds of apps from its app store in
China to adhere to the Chinese great firewall of censorship.
Apple CEO Tim Cook did not mention that at the conference but
said Apple shared the same vision with China on
<DATA 249 92B8>{5BD7:11} open Internet.

"The theme of this conference - developing a digital economy for
openness and shared benefits - is a vision we at Apple share," Cook
said adding, "We are proud to have worked alongside many of our
partners in China to
<DATA 249 F998>{5BD7:12}help build a community that will join a
common future in cyberspace."

But in the wake of Apple's decisions to remove APPS and similar
moves, questions have surfaced about whether American CEOs are
indirectly endorsing China's censorsh
<DATA 249 51BD>{5BD7:13}ip methods in their
eagerness to obtain a larger slice of the country's lucrative
market.

Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy specifically targeted the Apple
ƒ1uGor failing to promote freedom of expression. "Apple is
clearly a force
<DATA 249 7D57>{5BD7:14}for good in China, but I also believe it and
other tech companies must continue to push back on Chinese
suppression of free expression," Leahy said.

Cook responded with a statement saying, "Each country in the
world decides their laws
<DATA 249 A06B>{5BD7:15} and their regulations, and so your
choice is do you participate or stand on the sideline and yell at
how things should be.... And my own view, very strongly, is that
you show up and you participate, you go in the arena. Because
nothing
<DATA 249 E854>{5BD7:16} changes from sideline."

Cooke of Web Presence in China agrees, adding that such questions
are not Apple's responsibility.

"If you want do to business in a country you got to obey rules
and laws of that country. That's with any busi
<DATA 249 B45C>{5BD7:17}ness. I mean it is
not up to you to criticize or change the laws that serve the
politicians," Cooke said.

Robert Elliot Kahn, regarded by many as father of the Internet
for co-inventing Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet
<DATA 249 10CC>{5BD7:18}
Protocol (IP) views the controversy over China's internet
restrictions in a somewhat different light.

"Governments are going to impose their own rules and regulations;
that's the way the world works," he told VOA on the sidelines of
<DATA 249 A99C>{5BD7:19}
the conference. "But if we can make it easier for people to build
better products and services, to get more services to the public
and is supported by people and governments around the world, I
think that's progress for humanity."

Se
<DATA 249 6E59>{5BD7:20}eking business

It was apparent from the meeting that western businessmen,
including Cook and Google CEO Sudar Pichai, were doing what they
can to expand in the Chinese market. Although Google's browser
and Gmail is banned in China and
<DATA 249 CB99>{5BD7:21} the company left China more than
seven years ago, Bloomberg recently reported that the company was
making a comeback investing artificial intelligence.

"A lot of work Google does is to help Chinese companies. Many
small and medium-si
<DATA 249 B779>{5BD7:22}zed businesses in China take advantage of
Google to get their products to many other countries outside of
China," Pichai said.

Cook pointed out that Apple's app store has helped give China's
1.8 million developers total earnings worth
<DATA 249 D400>{5BD7:23} $16.9 billion, which
is the highest earned by developers in any country.

In a quote widely used in state media Cook said, "many people see
China as a big market, but for us the main attraction is the
quality of the people."

But in
<DATA 249 EEC6>{5BD7:24} the end, analysts note that China's influence remains
limited to the extent of the market it can offer to foreign
companies and this is limited by the fact that several giant
Chinese companies are jostling to fill every inch of the spac
<DATA 116 55DD>{5BD7:25}e.

https://www.voanews.com/a/china-internet-conference-brings-tech-companies-together/4160056.html

^r



<CNTL 10 ADE3>{5BD7:EOF}
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<FILE 50 45B6>{5BD7}20171213205600:China_internet_conference.txt
<ID 24 BF8D>{5BD7}KD9XB Arlington VA
<SIZE 17 35D2>{5BD7}5867 25 240
<DESC 36 C98A>{5BD7}News from the Voice of America
<DATA 248 6C80>{5BD7:1}




VOA NEWS

China Displays Clout at Internet Conference But Some Doubts
Remain

December 12, 2017 5:12 AM

Saibal Dasgupta
12 December 2017

BEIJING - China made an impressive display of its clout in the
digital economy d
<DATA 248 BAB1>{5BD7:2}uring a three-day internet conference in Beijing
last week by pulling together the participation of U.N. agencies,
the World Telecom Union and CEOs of major US based IT companies
like Google, Apple and Cisco System.

The conference sta
<DATA 248 8576>{5BD7:3}rted with a message from Chinese president Xi
Jinping who said, "China would never close its doors. They will
only be open wider and wider going forward."

But at the same time, Xi and Wang Huning, one of the ruling
Communist Party's s
<DATA 248 FA21>{5BD7:4}even most powerful men, emphasized the need
for "cyber sovereignty," which allows individual countries to
establish cyber boundaries to protect their respective sovereign
interests.

Xi said that besides benefits, "the internet has als
<DATA 248 82AC>{5BD7:5}o brought
many new challenges to the sovereignty, security and development
interests of nations across the world."

The Cyber Administration of China, which organized the World
Internet Conference in Wuzhen city, was trying to obtain p
<DATA 248 041E>{5BD7:6}ublic
confirmation about its Internet policies. This was also the first
time the annual conference, which started in 2014, had attracted
a high-profile attendance from heads of major international
companies and agencies.

Analysts are
<DATA 248 6379>{5BD7:7} skeptical the conference helped to boost China's
quest to influence rulemaking in the digital world. Many have
noted that none of the foreign speakers specifically referred to
Internet controls in China, which include bans on U.S. based
<DATA 248 4822>{5BD7:8}
services like Google, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube.

"I certainly don't see (this) as China's role as a rule setting
has expanded. The regulatory bodies and standards actually
usually doesn't apply to China," Jacob Cooke, CEO of cons
<DATA 248 EACC>{5BD7:9}ulting
firm, Web Presence in China told VOA. "There is actually a
noticeable lack of Chinese presence... . And, likewise here there
is no international presence in terms of regulatory body or rules
and regulations."

Apple's challeng
<DATA 249 6B26>{5BD7:10}e

Apple recently removed hundreds of apps from its app store in
China to adhere to the Chinese great firewall of censorship.
Apple CEO Tim Cook did not mention that at the conference but
said Apple shared the same vision with China on
<DATA 249 92B8>{5BD7:11} open Internet.

"The theme of this conference - developing a digital economy for
openness and shared benefits - is a vision we at Apple share," Cook
said adding, "We are proud to have worked alongside many of our
partners in China to
<DATA 249 F998>{5BD7:12}help build a community that will join a
common future in cyberspace."

But in the wake of Apple's decisions to remove APPS and similar
moves, questions have surfaced about whether American CEOs are
indirectly endorsing China's censorsh
<DATA 249 51BD>{5BD7:13}ip methods in their
eagerness to obtain a larger slice of the country's lucrative
market.

Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy specifically targeted the Apple
chief for failing to promote freedom of expression. "Apple is
clearly a force
<DATA 249 7D57>{5BD7:14}for good in China, but I also believe it and
other tech companies must continue to push back on Chinese
suppression of free expression," Leahy said.

Cook responded with a statement saying, "Each country in the
world decides their laws
<DATA 249 A06B>{5BD7:15} and their regulations, and so your
choice is do you participate or stand on the sideline and yell at
how things should be.... And my own view, very strongly, is that
you show up and you participate, you go in the arena. Because
nothing
<DATA 249 E854>{5BD7:16} changes from sideline."

Cooke of Web Presence in China agrees, adding that such questions
are not Apple's responsibility.

"If you want do to business in a country you got to obey rules
and laws of that country. That's with any busi
<DATA 249 B45C>{5BD7:17}ness. I mean it is
not up to you to criticize or change the laws that serve the
politicians," Cooke said.

Robert Elliot Kahn, regarded by many as father of the Internet
for co-inventing Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet
<DATA 249 10CC>{5BD7:18}
Protocol (IP) views the controversy over China's internet
restrictions in a somewhat different light.

"Governments are going to impose their own rules and regulations;
that's the way the world works," he told VOA on the sidelines of
<DATA 249 A99C>{5BD7:19}
the conference. "But if we can make it easier for people to build
better products and services, to get more services to the public
and is supported by people and governments around the world, I
think that's progress for humanity."

Se
<DATA 249 6E59>{5BD7:20}eking business

It was apparent from the meeting that western businessmen,
including Cook and Google CEO Sudar Pichai, were doing what they
can to expand in the Chinese market. Although Google's browser
and Gmail is banned in China and
<DATA 249 CB99>{5BD7:21} the company left China more than
seven years ago, Bloomberg recently reported that the company was
making a comeback investing artificial intelligence.

"A lot of work Google does is to help Chinese companies. Many
small and medium-si
<DATA 249 B779>{5BD7:22}zed businesses in China take advantage of
Google to get their products to many other countries outside of
China," Pichai said.

Cook pointed out that Apple's app store has helped give China's
1.8 million developers total earnings worth
<DATA 249 D400>{5BD7:23} $16.9 billion, which
is the highest earned by developers in any country.

In a quote widely used in state media Cook said, "many people see
China as a big market, but for us the main attraction is the
quality of the people."

But in
<DATA 249 EEC6>{5BD7:24} the end, analysts note that China's influence remains
limited to the extent of the market it can offer to foreign
companies and this is limited by the fact that several giant
Chinese companies are jostling to fill every inch of the spac
<DATA 116 55DD>{5BD7:25}e.

https://www.voanews.com/a/china-internet-conference-brings-tech-companies-together/4160056.html

^r



<CNTL 10 ADE3>{5BD7:EOF}
<CNTL 10 0DEF>{5BD7:EOT}

DE KD9XB K

 



 


China_internet_conference.txt



VOA NEWS

China Displays Clout at Internet Conference But Some Doubts
Remain

December 12, 2017 5:12 AM

Saibal Dasgupta
12 December 2017

BEIJING - China made an impressive display of its clout in the
digital economy during a three-day internet conference in Beijing
last week by pulling together the participation of U.N. agencies,
the World Telecom Union and CEOs of major US based IT companies
like Google, Apple and Cisco System.

The conference started with a message from Chinese president Xi
Jinping who said, "China would never close its doors. They will
only be open wider and wider going forward."

But at the same time, Xi and Wang Huning, one of the ruling
Communist Party's seven most powerful men, emphasized the need
for "cyber sovereignty," which allows individual countries to
establish cyber boundaries to protect their respective sovereign
interests.

Xi said that besides benefits, "the internet has also brought
many new challenges to the sovereignty, security and development
interests of nations across the world."

The Cyber Administration of China, which organized the World
Internet Conference in Wuzhen city, was trying to obtain public
confirmation about its Internet policies. This was also the first
time the annual conference, which started in 2014, had attracted
a high-profile attendance from heads of major international
companies and agencies.

Analysts are skeptical the conference helped to boost China's
quest to influence rulemaking in the digital world. Many have
noted that none of the foreign speakers specifically referred to
Internet controls in China, which include bans on U.S. based
services like Google, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube.

"I certainly don't see (this) as China's role as a rule setting
has expanded. The regulatory bodies and standards actually
usually doesn't apply to China," Jacob Cooke, CEO of consulting
firm, Web Presence in China told VOA. "There is actually a
noticeable lack of Chinese presence... . And, likewise here there
is no international presence in terms of regulatory body or rules
and regulations."

Apple's challenge

Apple recently removed hundreds of apps from its app store in
China to adhere to the Chinese great firewall of censorship.
Apple CEO Tim Cook did not mention that at the conference but
said Apple shared the same vision with China on open Internet.

"The theme of this conference - developing a digital economy for
openness and shared benefits - is a vision we at Apple share," Cook
said adding, "We are proud to have worked alongside many of our
partners in China to help build a community that will join a
common future in cyberspace."

But in the wake of Apple's decisions to remove APPS and similar
moves, questions have surfaced about whether American CEOs are
indirectly endorsing China's censorship methods in their
eagerness to obtain a larger slice of the country's lucrative
market.

Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy specifically targeted the Apple
chief for failing to promote freedom of expression. "Apple is
clearly a force for good in China, but I also believe it and
other tech companies must continue to push back on Chinese
suppression of free expression," Leahy said.

Cook responded with a statement saying, "Each country in the
world decides their laws and their regulations, and so your
choice is do you participate or stand on the sideline and yell at
how things should be.... And my own view, very strongly, is that
you show up and you participate, you go in the arena. Because
nothing changes from sideline."

Cooke of Web Presence in China agrees, adding that such questions
are not Apple's responsibility.

"If you want do to business in a country you got to obey rules
and laws of that country. That's with any business. I mean it is
not up to you to criticize or change the laws that serve the
politicians," Cooke said.

Robert Elliot Kahn, regarded by many as father of the Internet
for co-inventing Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet
Protocol (IP) views the controversy over China's internet
restrictions in a somewhat different light.

"Governments are going to impose their own rules and regulations;
that's the way the world works," he told VOA on the sidelines of
the conference. "But if we can make it easier for people to build
better products and services, to get more services to the public
and is supported by people and governments around the world, I
think that's progress for humanity."

Seeking business

It was apparent from the meeting that western businessmen,
including Cook and Google CEO Sudar Pichai, were doing what they
can to expand in the Chinese market. Although Google's browser
and Gmail is banned in China and the company left China more than
seven years ago, Bloomberg recently reported that the company was
making a comeback investing artificial intelligence.

"A lot of work Google does is to help Chinese companies. Many
small and medium-sized businesses in China take advantage of
Google to get their products to many other countries outside of
China," Pichai said.

Cook pointed out that Apple's app store has helped give China's
1.8 million developers total earnings worth $16.9 billion, which
is the highest earned by developers in any country.

In a quote widely used in state media Cook said, "many people see
China as a big market, but for us the main attraction is the
quality of the people."

But in the end, analysts note that China's influence remains
limited to the extent of the market it can offer to foreign
companies and this is limited by the fact that several giant
Chinese companies are jostling to fill every inch of the space.

https://www.voanews.com/a/china-internet-conference-brings-tech-companies-together/4160056.html

^r




Shortwave Radiogram now returns to MFSK32 ...
 

 


RSID: <<2017-12-16T16:15Z MFSK-32 @ 9400000+1500>>



This is Shortwave Radiogram.

Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net


From Phys.org

MWA radio telescope expansion complete -- Exploration of the
universe's first stars begins

13 December 2017

When and how were the first stars in the universe born? The
Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio telescope in the desert of
Western Australia, one of the largest of its kind, was
constructed to clarify this and many other mysteries. The MWA is
an international radio-astronomy project conducted by seven
countries including Japan and Australia. In Japan, Kumamoto
University (main), Nagoya University, Kagoshima University,
University of Tokyo, Tohoku University, and the National
Astronomical Observatory of Japan are participating in the
effort. Construction to increase the sensitivity of the MWA began
in 2016, and was completed in October of this year (2017). The
antennas were doubled in number to 4,096 over a 5 km2 area, which
greatly improved the sensitivity of the telescope. The upgraded
MWA will seek answers to mysteries of the universe that began
13.7 billion years ago.

It is believed that the universe began with the Big Bang 13.8
billion years ago. Our sun was born 4.6 billion years ago, making
it relatively recent in the long history of the universe. It is
theorized that the first stars of the universe would have been
born about 100 million years after the universe began, or about
13.7 billion years in the past. Such stars are too far away to
observe with state-of-the-art telescopes. The MWA, on the other
hand, can observe the distribution of hydrogen gas 100 million to
1 billion years after the Big Bang. Stars are born by the
condensation of hydrogen gas, and if you observe the distribution
of hydrogen gas far enough back in time, you can explore how the
first stars were born in the universe.

However, since the signal from hydrogen gas of the ancient
universe is very weak, a telescope with a wide area is necessary.
With twice the number of antennas over four times the area of its
previous incarnation, the MWA has greatly improved its
sensitivity and image quality. It is now possible to observe much
more detailed structures of the universe and the search for the
first stars is underway. Furthermore, cooperative observation
with the Japanese Subaru telescope in Hawaii is also planned.
That collaboration will further explore the mysteries from 100
million to 1 billion years after the universe began.

https://phys.org/news/2017-12-mwa-radio-telescope-expansion-completeexploration.html


Image: A total of 4,096 antenna units are installed in the desert
area of Western Australia. Sixteen units, like the one in the
picture, are considered one antenna unit ...

Sending Pic:224x134C;

 

 

 

 

 


From VOA Science World Blog:

Most Distant Supermassive Black Hole Found

Rick Pantaleo
8 December 2017

A new study outlines the discovery of the most distant
supermassive black hole to date.

The monster black hole has been calculated to be roughly 13
billion light years from Earth.

This means that it was formed a mere 690 million years after the
big bang.

An international group of scientists calculated the mass of the
black hole to be 800 million times that of our Sun.

Study co-author, Daniel Stern of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
says the discovery of the distant supermassive black hole
challenges current theories about how black holes form.

The scientists found that the giant black hole is gobbling matter
so quickly that it powers a quasar, which is among the brightest
known celestial objects in the universe.

Supermassive black holes are found in the center of large
galaxies.

The Milky Way's supermassive black hole is called Sagittarius A*
and has the mass of 4.1 million suns.

https://blogs.voanews.com/science-world/2017/12/08/voyager-1-humans-peak-distant-black-hole/
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2017-312


Image: Artist's concept ...

Sending Pic:228x140C;



 



 

 


Transmission of Shortwave Radiogram is provided by:

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and

Space Line, Bulgaria, http://spaceline.bg


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I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave
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Sending Pic:205x148C;


 

https://www.arlnow.com/2017/12/12/morning-notes-1800/

https://c1.staticflickr.com/5/4563/37773619955_2d6c86dadc_k.jpg

 


 



 

  Ending song:

  https://www.midomi.com/index.php?action=main.track&track_id=100803020022809505&from=voice_search

  IKOS - The Gloucestershire Wassail

 

 

Program 26S of Shortwave Radiogram

 


NO RSID    <<2017-12-17T23:31Z OL 128-2000 @ 11580000+1500>>
 

 

Welcome to program 26-S of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia, USA.

This special transmission of Shortwave Radiogram is in the Olivia
128-2000 mode.

This is a slow mode, 17 words per minute, so we will broadcast
only one news item during this show.

Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net

And visit http://swradiogram.net

Twitter: @SWRadiogram




Study: Drought Caused California Mountains to Rise

VOA News
13 December 2017

A study of California's Sierra Nevada during the state’s extreme
drought has led NASA scientists to new conclusions about how our
planet stores water.

The study by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena,
California, found that the mountain range rose nearly 2.5
centimeters in height from October 2011 to October 2015, when the
state experienced its most extended drought.

yn the following two years, with abundant snow and rain, the
range lost about half, or 1.3 centimeters, of its new height.

"This suggests that the solid Earth has a greater capacity to
store water than previously thought," study leader Donald Argus
said in a statement released Wednesday.

"One of the major unknowns in mountain hydrology is what happens
below the soil. How much snowmelt percolates through fractured
rock straight downward into the core of the mountain?" said Jay
Famiglietti, a Jet Propulsion Lab scientist who participated in
the research. "This is one of the key topics that we addressed in
our study."

The scientists reasoned that the Earth's surface sinks when it is
weighed down with water and rebounds when the water evaporates or
is otherwise lost.

The study used data from 1,300 Global Positioning System stations
in the mountains of California, Oregon and Washington that were
placed for measurement of subtle tectonic motion in active faults
and volcanoes and can detect elevation changes of less than 0.3
centimeter.

The scientists determined that the water lost in the four-year
drought was about 45 times the amount that Los Angeles uses in a
year.

The study also took into account other reasons for the change in
height of the mountain range that runs 644 kilometers along
California's border with Nevada, including tectonic uplift or the
extensive pumping of groundwater during the drought.

https://www.voanews.com/a/study-drought-caused-california-mountains-to-rise/4163171.html




Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net

And visit http://swradiogram.net

Twitter: @SWRadiogram

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave
Radiogram.

 


 

  Ending song:

  https://www.midomi.com/index.php?action=main.track&track_id=100803020022809505&from=voice_search

  IKOS - The Gloucestershire Wassail

 

 

    In the animation: Screenshot OLIVIA 128-2000 from the first 10s via remote SDR in California (good) & via Switzerland (weaker)

 

 


http://www.rhci-online.net/radiogram/radiogram.htm

 

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 Ant.:

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 RX   for  RF:

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