RSID: <<2021-09-30T23:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

Welcome to program 224 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:43 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:46 Future astronauts might pull H2O and O2 from lunar soil
  6:09 MFSK64: Starlink satellite can be used like GPS
10:07 This week's images
27:33 MFSK32: Closing announcements

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Twitter: @SWRadiogram

From New Atlas:

Future astronauts may be able to pull water and oxygen from lunar

By Ben Coxworth
September 23, 2021

If there are two things that are essential to human life, they're
water and oxygen – neither of which are easily available on the
moon. Thanks to a new technique, though, astronauts may someday
be able to harvest those elements from lunar soil.

The two-step process was developed by a consortium of scientists
from the Polytechnic University of Milan, the European Space
Agency, the Italian Space Agency and space systems corporation
OHB. It builds upon an existing technique utilized in terrestrial
applications, and takes advantage of the fact that approximately
50 percent of the soil in all areas of the moon is made up of
minerals such as silicon dioxide and iron oxide, which are in
turn composed largely of oxygen.

In a lab setup, the researchers started by heating simulated
lunar soil in a furnace – in the presence of hydrogen and methane
– to a temperature of about 1,000 ºC (1,832 ºF). Doing so
vaporized the soil, causing the oxygen-containing minerals to
transition straight from a solid to gaseous state, bypassing the
molten phase.

Those gases and the residual methane were then sent to a
catalytic converter and a condenser, the latter of which
separated out liquid water from the mixture. That water could
then be consumed as is, or oxygen could be extracted from it via

Leftover hydrogen and methane can be recycled within the system.
There's also a solid byproduct which is rich in silica and
metals, that could conceivably be processed further for other
uses on moon colonies. And while the process may sound rather
complex, it can apparently run on its own.

"Our experiments show that the rig is scalable and can operate in
an almost completely self-sustained closed loop, without the need
for human intervention and without getting clogged up," says
Prof. Michèle Lavagna of the Polytechnic University of Milan.

The team's research is being presented this week via the online
Europlanet Science Congress (EPSC) 2021.


Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...








RSID: <<2021-09-30T23:36Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

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From TechXplore:

SpaceX satellite signals used like GPS to pinpoint location on

by Laura Arenschield
The Ohio State University

Engineering researchers have developed a method to use signals
broadcast by Starlink internet service satellites to accurately
locate a position here on Earth, much like GPS does. It is the
first time the Starlink system has been harnessed by researchers
outside SpaceX for navigation.

The Starlink satellites, sent into orbit by Elon Musk's SpaceX,
are designed to provide broadband internet connections in remote
locations around the world. The researchers used signals from six
Starlink satellites to pinpoint a location on Earth within 8
meters of accuracy.

Their findings, shared September 22 at the Institute of
Navigation GNSS annual meeting in St. Louis, may provide a
promising alternative to GPS. Their results will be published in
the upcoming issue of the journal IEEE Transactions on Aerospace
and Electronic Systems.

The researchers did not need assistance from SpaceX to use the
satellite signals, and they emphasized that they had no access to
the actual data being sent through the satellites—only to
information related to the satellite's location and movement.

"We eavesdropped on the signal, and then we designed
sophisticated algorithms to pinpoint our location, and we showed
that it works with great accuracy," said Zak Kassas, director of
the Center for Automated Vehicles Research with Multimodal
Assured Navigation (CARMEN), a multi-institution transportation
center housed at The Ohio State University.

"And even though Starlink wasn't designed for navigation
purposes, we showed that it was possible to learn parts of the
system well enough to use it for navigation."

CARMEN is one of four recently awarded U.S. Department of
Transportation University Transportation Centers. Kassas is an
adjunct professor of electrical and computer engineering at Ohio
State and an associate professor at the University of California,

For this research, Kassas and his research team studied the
Starlink system and analyzed signals being sent by the
satellites. They developed an algorithm that could use the
signals of multiple satellites to locate a position on Earth.
Then, they set up an antenna on the campus of UCI and tried to
use the network to pinpoint the antenna's location.

Using Starlink, they identified the antenna's location within
about 7.7 meters. GPS, by comparison, generally identifies a
device's location within 0.3 and 5 meters. The team has used
similar techniques with other low Earth orbit satellite
constellations, but with less accuracy, pinpointing locations
within about 23 meters, Kassas said. The team has also been
working with the U.S. Air Force to pinpoint locations of
high-altitude aircraft; they were able to come within 5 meters
using land-based cellular signals, Kassas said.

SpaceX has some 1,700 satellites in Earth's low orbit, meaning
they circle the planet about 1,200 km from Earth's surface.
SpaceX ultimately plans to launch more than 40,000 satellites.

Kassas said as the Starlink constellation grows, so, too, will
the accuracy of his team's navigation and geo-location technique
with its signals.

Their discovery could allow the government or other agencies to
use Starlink's satellites as an alternative navigation system—and
possibly, a more secure one—to GPS, which powers almost all
navigation systems around the world, Kassas said.

GPS has been in place for more than 30 years and its signals are
well-known, akin to open-source software, Kassas said. That is an
asset to companies that develop GPS receivers in smartphones,
wearable fitness devices and vehicles, but it also makes the
system vulnerable to attacks. GPS satellites are also farther
away from Earth than low-Earth orbiting systems, making their
signals weaker, and therefore more susceptible to interference.

Jamming attacks on GPS signals can take down GPS signals
altogether, which has been a growing problem for aviation.
Spoofing attacks on GPS can manipulate where a given vehicle
appears in systems designed to monitor locations and prevent
vehicles from overlapping routes; attacks can also take over a
vehicle's path—for example, some attacks have overtaken military
and civilian drones, maritime vessels, and even Tesla's

The Starlink system is appealing to navigation experts, Kassas
said, because the signals, until now, have been private—SpaceX
has not shared them with governments or researchers. Starlink
satellites are closer to Earth than GPS satellites are, making
their signals much stronger and less susceptible to interference.

"The important catch here is that we are not 'listening' in on
what is being sent over these satellites," Kassas said. "We
learned the signals just well enough to harness them for
navigation purposes."



This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

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This week's images ...

Libeskind Tower in Milan reaches a height of 175 m. It's a winner
in the 2021 Emporis Skyscraper Awards. ...

Sending Pic:137x209C;


A worker produces red lanterns ahead of China's National Day in
Danzhai, Guizhou province. ...

Sending Pic:191x195C;



A hotshot crew marches to a spot fire as the Windy Fire expands
in Sequoia National Forest, near Sugarloaf, California. ...

Sending Pic:189x200C;


Girdle Ness Lighthouse in Aberdeen, Scotland, in the mist. ...

Sending Pic:247x304;



Gulls taking to the wing at sunrise at Aberdeen Beach, Scotland. ...

Sending Pic:177x194C;




Sunset at Knox Farm State Park, northwest New York, September 28. ...

Sending Pic:222x128C;



The morning of September 27 at Silver Falls State Park, Oregon. ...

Sending Pic:126x220C;

The beginning of fall colors at Turtle River State Park, North
Dakota. ...

Sending Pic:185x197C;






Our painting of the week is "Early Autumn" by Kevin Liang. ...

Sending Pic:198x195C;


Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...


RSID: <<2021-09-23T23:57Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...


Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

WRMI, Radio Miami International,


WINB Shortwave,

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And visit

Twitter: @SWRadiogram or

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave



RSID: <<2021-09-23T23:58Z OL 32-2K @ 9265000+1500>>

Thank you for decoding the modes on Shortwave Radiogram.






    Closing music SWRG#224:
   Dr. Lonnie Smith on the Hammond Organ
   His obituary ...





 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR     [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +     beta 11  Version 2.80 (August 21, 2018)  - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.0.18        +   flmsg-4.0.7                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


 German XP-SP3 with support for asian languages

 German W7 32bit + 64bit


 MEDION Titanium 8008  (since 2003)   [ P4 - 2,6 GHz]

 MSI-CR70-2MP345W7  (since2014)   [i5 -P3560 ( 2 x 2,6GHz) ]


RSID: <<2021-10-03T01:30Z MFSK-64 @ 5960000+1500>>

Don McLean was born October 2, 1945.

Sending Pic:213x239;

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RSID: <<2021-09-30T02:47Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


This Is A Music Show #135
30 September 2021

0200-0300UTC Thursday on 5850 kHz

via WRMI, Okeechobee USA


TIAnExpressMS w/ Radio Northern Europe International
via Channel 292 in Germany, mainly on 6070 kHz.

Broadcast various dates/times/freqs. Check the schedule here:



Ernie Freeman - Shape Up


Sweet Exorcist - Testfour (EDIT)
Cabert Voltaire - Just Facinsation
Sweet Exorcist - PEr Clonk (EDIT)


Living Guitars - Somebody To Love
The Kingsmen - Killer Joe
The Duals - Cruisin'


The Starlites - Born Again Rasta Pt. 2 DUB
Baba Brooks And His Recording Band - Brown Eyes


Lester Lanin - West Indies Ska
The Gay Desperados Steel Orchestra - Yesterday


Black Star - Black Star


THIS DATA w/ Bert Kaempfert - Where Flamingos Fly


Richie Havens - New City


TIAMS Website:

Go here for show archives + official shop!


Please send reception reports/comments:

Follow TIAMS on Twitter:


Thanks for listening!






RSID: <<2021-09-30T02:49Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>

Sending Pic:300x300Cp4;

Richard H. Kirk
21 March 1956 - 21 September 2021







--- RNEI Show #22 Playlist ---
(= Spotify Streams)

1, ClubDub & Mambakid - frikki dór 2012 🇮🇸
2, Yaeger - Catch Me If You Can 🇸🇪
3, Nelli Matula - Tulevaisuuteen 🇫🇮
4, CHVRCHES - Violent Delights 🇬🇧
5, Daniela Reyes - Praten sporer av 🇳🇴
6, West of Eden - Så skimrande var aldrig havet 🇸🇪
7, Molly Sandén - Vi ska aldrig gå hem 🇸🇪
8, Braaten & Chrit Leaf & Aili - Seaside 🇳🇴-*Sámi*

Til vi møtes igjen,
Ha det!




     Artist    &   Track name country flag spotify #


date --YT --
1. ClubDub & Mambakid - frikki dór 2012 🇮🇸 (228k)    (1) 2021-07-08
2. Yaeger - Catch Me If You Can 🇸🇪 (233k)

   (2) - - -

3. Nelli Matula - Tulevaisuuteen 🇫🇮 (1.55m)    (3) 2021-07-08
4. CHVRCHES - Violent Delights 🇬🇧 (1.17m)    (4) 2021-08-27
5. Daniela Reyes - Praten sporer av 🇳🇴 (17.3k)    (5) 2021-07-01
6. West of Eden - Så skimrande var aldrig havet 🇸🇪 (2306)    (6) 2021-08-04
7. Molly Sandén - Vi ska aldrig gå hem 🇸🇪      (7) 2021-09-29
--- RNEI Dance Section ---          
8. Braaten & Chrit Leaf & Aili - Seaside 🇳🇴-*Sámi* (1.39m)    (8) 2021-06-11