RSID: <<2021-10-21T23:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


Welcome to program 227 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:40 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:43 Vikings lived in North America by at least the year 1021
  6:08 MFSK64: Strategies for defense against asteroids
12:28 This week's images
28:28 MFSK32: Closing announcements

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Twitter: @SWRadiogram


From Science News:

Vikings lived in North America by at least the year 1021

By Bruce Bower
October 20, 2021

Vikings inhabited North America exactly 1,000 years ago, a new
study finds.

Counting tree rings reveals that wooden objects previously found
at an archaeological site on Newfoundland's northern peninsula
were made from trees felled in the year 1021. That's the oldest
precise date for Europeans in the Americas and the only one from
before Christopher Columbus' voyages in 1492, geoscientists
Margot Kuitems and Michael Dee and colleagues report October 20
in Nature.

Researchers have assumed that Norse Vikings built and lived at
the site, called L'Anse aux Meadows, roughly 1,000 years ago. But
earlier attempts to more precisely date the settlement, which
included three dwellings and other structures made of timber and
turf and is now a UNESCO historic site, were inconclusive.
Evidence of a possible second Viking settlement in Newfoundland
from around 1,000 years ago remains preliminary.

The new study focused on four wooden objects found at L'Anse aux
Meadows, which was first excavated in the 1960s. It's not clear
how the objects were used, but each had been cut with metal
tools. On three of the finds, Kuitems and Dee, both of the
University of Groningen in the Netherlands, and their team
identified an annual tree growth ring that displayed a signature
spike in radiocarbon levels. Other researchers have dated that
spike to the year 993, when a surge of cosmic rays from solar
activity bombarded Earth and increased the planet's atmospheric
levels of radioactive carbon.

Counting growth rings out to the edge of each wooden object
starting at the year 993 ring yielded the same age — 1021.

Despite its precision, that date leaves unanswered when Vikings
first set foot in the Americas. L'Anse aux Meadows might have
been part of Vinland, a region in what's now eastern Canada that
is described in 13th century Icelandic texts as having been
settled by Vikings.

See also:

Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...



RSID: <<2021-10-21T23:36Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

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Is the best planetary defense a good offense?

Posted by Sonia Fernandez
October 14, 2021

In February of 2013, skywatchers around the world turned their
attention toward asteroid 2012 DA14, a cosmic rock about 150 feet
(50 meters) in diameter that was going to fly closer to Earth
than the spacecraft that bring us satellite TV.

Little did they realize as they prepared for the
once-in-several-decades event that another bit of celestial
debris was hurtling toward Earth, with a more direct heading. On
February 15, 2013, the Chelyabinsk meteor, a roughly 62-foot (19
meter)-diameter asteroid exploded over the city of Chelyabinsk,
Russia, as it entered Earth's atmosphere at a shallow angle. The
blast shattered windows and damaged buildings, and nearly two
thousand people were hurt, though thankfully no one died.

"It turned out that two completely independent asteroids were
coming by that day," says Philip Lubin, professor of physics at
the University of California, Santa Barbara, and one of the many
scientists anticipating 2012 DA14's near-Earth rendezvous. "One
of them we knew was going to miss the Earth. The other one, we
didn't even know it was coming."

For Lubin and scientists like him, incidents like these underline
the importance of robust planetary defense—the detection,
tracking, characterization, and ultimately defense against
potentially dangerous asteroids and comets. City-threatening
events like Chelyabinsk are rare, happening about once every 50
to 100 years, but they are potentially devastating.

The most recent of these occurrences was the Tunguska Event, an
airburst over eastern Siberia in 1908, which flattened hundreds
of square miles of forest. Rarer still, but nevertheless
possible, are objects that threaten mass-extinction, such as the
Chicxulub impactor, which wiped out the dinosaurs some 66 million
years ago, or the more recent (12,800 years ago) airburst that
caused widespread burning and the onset of an "impact winter"
called the Younger Dryas.

However, one cannot discount the possibility of larger objects
coming uncomfortably close to Earth in the near future: Apophis,
with its 1,214-foot (370 meter) diameter, is due to make a close
pass on Friday the 13th in April 2029, while Bennu, at 1,608 feet
(490 m) in diameter, is expected to perform a similar pass in
2036. Though they are not anticipated to hit Earth, even
relatively small changes in their orbit could cause them to enter
gravitational pockets called "keyholes" that can place them on a
more direct trajectory toward Earth.

"If it goes through the gravitational keyhole, it will generally
hit Earth on the next round," Lubin says.

Strategies for planetary defense have progressed from research
into better methods for understanding the threats, to efforts to
deflect potential hazards and change their orbits, including a
strategy developed by Lubin's group, which proposed the use of
lasers to push threatening objects out of Earth's way.

Now, Lubin and coresearcher Alexander Cohen have two papers on
the topic of terminal planetary defense submitted to the journal
Advances in Space Research, accompanied by an opinion piece
published in Scientific American on the subject.

When and where?

"While we often say that nothing in life is certain but death and
taxes, we can certainly also add human extinction to this list,"
Lubin says. "There is a large asteroid or comet lurking in our
solar system with ‘Earth' written on it. We just do not know
where it is or when it will hit."

In the last 113 years, the Earth has been hit by two large
asteroids that could have threatened the lives of millions, had
they struck over a major city. However, humanity was lucky. In
light of this very real threat, it is time to seriously plan for
and execute a planetary defense program, the researchers say. PI
allows for a logical and cost-effective approach to the ultimate
environmental protection program.

‘Slice and dice' the asteroids?

Key to the PI strategy is the deployment of an array of
penetrator rods, possibly filled with explosives, laid in the
path of the asteroid to "slice and dice" the threatening object.
The penetrator rods—about 4-12 inches (10-30 cm) in diameter and
6-10 feet long—fragment the asteroid or comet nucleus as it
crashes into them at extreme speed.

Crucially, instead of deflecting the object, the strategy is to
let the Earth take the hit, the researchers say, but first to
disassemble the asteroid into smaller pieces—typically the size
of a house—and let the fragments enter the Earth's atmosphere.
The atmosphere can then absorb the energy and further vaporize
the house-sized pieces into small debris that do not hit the

Since the original asteroid now enters the atmosphere as a large,
distributed cloud of small fragments, they spatially and
temporally distribute the energy of the impact, which
de-correlates the blast waves created by each fragment. This
vastly reduces the threat from catastrophic to more of a
"fireworks display," complete with light and sound.

"If you can reduce the big events, which are dangerous, into a
bunch of little events that are harmless, you've ultimately
mitigated the threat," Cohen says.

"What's unique about this method is that you can have incredibly
short response times," Lubin adds. "A problem that other
techniques like asteroid-deflecting methods have is that they are
severely limited in their response times. In other words, they
rely on getting an asset to deflect the threat all the way out to
the asteroid long before it comes close to the Earth."

Instead, the PI "slice and dice" method intercepts asteroids or
comets as they approach the Earth and could be deployed by launch
vehicles that already exist today, such as SpaceX's Falcon 9 and
NASA's SLS for larger targets. According to the physicists'
calculations, smaller targets like the Chelyabinsk meteor could
be intercepted just minutes before impact using much smaller
launchers similar to ICBM interceptors, while targets that pose a
more serious threat, like Apophis, could be intercepted just 10
days prior to impact. Mitigation times this short are entirely
unprecedented, according to the researchers.

Planetary defense or offense?

Another part of the program is to consider a proactive approach
to protecting our planet, the researchers say.

"Much as we get vaccinated to prevent future diseases, as we are
now so painfully aware, we could vaccinate the planet by using
the penetrator arrays like the needles of a vaccine shot to
prevent a catastrophic loss of life in the future," Lubin says.

In this approach, the same system can be used to proactively
eliminate threatening objects like Apophis and Bennu to protect
future generations.

"It is not well appreciated that large and threatening objects
like the Apophis and Bennu asteroids are extremely serious," he
continues. "Should they strike, each of them has an energy at
impact equal to all of the nuclear weapons on Earth combined.
Imagine all of the Earth's nuclear arsenal being detonated in a
few seconds. With PI we can prevent this scenario."

This new approach, according to Lubin and Cohen, could make
planetary defense quite feasible and "easy as PI," and would
allow for a logical roadmap to a robust planetary defense system.

"Extraordinarily rapid response is possible," Lubin says. "We
don't see any technological showstoppers. It's synergistic with
the current generation of launch vehicles and others that are
coming out." Additionally, Lubin adds, the method "would be in
great synergy with future lunar operations," with the moon
potentially acting as a "forward base of operations."

"Humanity could finally control its fate and prevent a future
mass extinction like that of the previous tenants of the Earth
who did not bother with planetary defense, the dinosaurs."

To see how this system works, visit the UCSB Experimental
Cosmology group's PI-Terminal Planetary Defense project page:

Source: University of California Santa Barbara



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This week's images ...

From the Weather Photographer of the Year 2021 competition:
Moisture on a leaf in Frenchs Forest, New South Wales, Australia. ...

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New Bridge in Ayr, Scotland. ...

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Fall colors are beginning to appear in Washington DC. ...

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Cottonwood leaves in West Virginia's Blackwater State Park. ...

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Early autumn leaves in Front Royal, Virginia. ...

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Sunrise in Old Town, Alexandria, Virginia, October 15. ...

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A Cape May Warbler at Jones Beach State Park, Long Island, New
York. ...

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A cabin in Conway, New Hampshire, during an autumn night. ...

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Our painting of the week is "Painted Pumpkin" by Seamus Berkeley. ...

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Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...

RSID: <<2021-10-21T23:58Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...


Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

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    Closing music SWRG#227:

   The Chieftains - Love Theme (From "Barry Lyndon") Film Cuts • 1990





 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR     [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +     beta 11  Version 2.80 (August 21, 2018)  - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.0.18        +   flmsg-4.0.7                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


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RSID: <<2021-10-21T02:46Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>

This Is A Music Show #138
21 October 2021

0200-0300UTC Thursday on 5850 kHz

via WRMI, Okeechobee USA


TIAnExpressMS w/ Radio Northern Europe International
via Channel 292 in Germany, mainly on 6070 kHz.

Broadcast various dates/times/freqs. Check the schedule here:



Valjean Johns - Mashmellow Pudding


Alive N' Kickin' - Junction Creek
The Mustangs - Proud Mary
Lord Nelson - My Love And I


Emil Palame Big Band - Pick Up The Pieces
Hell's Gate Steel Band - Blowing In The Wind
Peter Brown - I Couldn't Stand Losing You


Baba Brooks And His Recording Band - 1st Session
Joe Gibbs And The Professionals - Virginia Skank


Ramsey Lewis - Les Clefs De Mon Coeur


THIS DATA w/ Bert Kaempfert - Solitude


Karl Berger And David Holland - The Beginning


TIAMS Website:

Go here for show archives + official shop!


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Thanks for listening!



RSID: <<2021-10-21T02:47Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>

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Valjean Johns - Mashmellow Pudding

- - -


- - -


Alive N' Kickin' - Junction Creek
The Mustangs - Proud Mary
Lord Nelson - My Love And I

- - -

- - -

- - -


Emil Palame Big Band - Pick Up The Pieces
Hell's Gate Steel Band - Blowing In The Wind
Peter Brown - I Couldn't Stand Losing You

- - -

- - -


- - -



Baba Brooks And His Recording Band - 1st Session
Joe Gibbs And The Professionals - Virginia Skank

- - -

Ramsey Lewis - Les Clefs De Mon Coeur


THIS DATA w/ Bert Kaempfert - Solitude

- - -

Karl Berger And David Holland - The Beginning





RSID: <<2021-10-24T01:30Z MFSK-64 @ 5960000+1500>>


Manfred Mann was born Manfred Sepse Lubowitz October 21, 1940.

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RSID: <<2021-10-24T11:53Z MFSK-64 @ 9670000+1500>>

This Is An Express Music Show
October 2021

Channel 292 on 6070 kHz



The Duals - Crusin'


The Flaming Ember - Filet De Soul
Spyder Turner - You're Good Enough For Me
The Factory - Try A Little Sunshine
Smilin' Johnny And His Prarie Pals - Guitar Boogie Shuffle
The Revolutionaries - Leftist VERSION
Thundermug - Africa


THIS DATA - Bert Kaempfert - Moonglow


Baba Brooks And His Recording Band - King Size


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Thanks for listening!



RSID: <<2021-10-24T11:54Z MFSK-64 @ 9670000+1500>>

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