RSID: <<2022-05-12T23:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


Welcome to program 255 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:38 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:45 MFSK32: How cheap metals can act like rare catalysts
  6:46 MFSK64: Tonga volcano affected space and ionosphere*
11:43 MFSK64: This week's images*
28:28 MFSK32: Closing announcements

* with image(s)


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From New Atlas:

"Catalytic condenser" lets cheap metals act like rare, expensive

By Michael Irving
May 10, 2022

It's an unfortunate truth that many important chemical reactions
require rare and expensive metals as catalysts. But now,
scientists have developed a device that actively tweaks plain old
aluminum to make it behave like other metals on the fly.

Platinum, palladium, rhodium and other metals are key drivers of
reactions used to manufacture materials and chemicals in many
industries. The problem of course is that these metals are hard
to come by and as such can get very expensive, which drives up
the cost of manufacturing equipment and processes, as well as the
final products.

New research led by the University of Minnesota has found that by
adding or removing electrons, common, cheap materials can be
tuned to have some of the useful surface properties of expensive
catalytic metals. A new device called a catalytic condenser can
do just that.

"Atoms really do not want to change their number of electrons,
but we invented the catalytic condenser device that allows us to
tune the number of electrons at the surface of the catalyst,"
said Paul Dauenhauer, lead researcher on the study. "This opens
up an entirely new opportunity for controlling chemistry and
making abundant materials act like precious materials."

To adjust the number of electrons in a material, the catalytic
condenser is made up of a series of thin films arranged in a
stack. The top is a 4-nanometer-thick layer of alumina (aluminum
oxide), which sits on a layer of graphene, with an insulator
below that and a conductor on the bottom. When a voltage is
applied to the graphene and conductor layers, a charge is induced
in the alumina. This changes its surface properties, allowing it
to act like a catalyst way above its pay grade.

The specific catalyst that the alumina can act like can be
tweaked by tuning the voltage applied, the composition of the
insulating layer, or including different additives in the active
layer. The researchers say variations on these devices could be
used in a range of industries, to perform different reactions as

"We view the catalytic condenser as a platform technology that
can be implemented across a host of manufacturing applications,"
said Dan Frisbie, an author of the study. "The core design
insights and novel components can be modified to almost any
chemistry we can imagine."

The research was published in the journal JACS Au.

Source: University of Minnesota


Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...




RSID: <<2022-05-12T23:36Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

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Satellite mission finds that Tonga volcanic eruption effects
reached space

by Mara Johnson-Groh
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
May 10, 2022

When the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano erupted on Jan. 15,
2022, it sent atmospheric shock waves, sonic booms, and tsunami
waves around the world. Now, scientists are finding the volcano's
effects also reached space.

Analyzing data from NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)
mission and ESA's (the European Space Agency) Swarm satellites,
scientists found that in the hours after the eruption,
hurricane-speed winds and unusual electric currents formed in the
ionosphere—Earth's electrified upper atmospheric layer at the
edge of space.

"The volcano created one of the largest disturbances in space
we've seen in the modern era," said Brian Harding, a physicist at
University of California, Berkeley, and lead author on a new
paper discussing the findings. "It is allowing us to test the
poorly understood connection between the lower atmosphere and

ICON launched in 2019 to identify how Earth's weather interacts
with weather from space—a relatively new idea supplanting
previous assumptions that only forces from the sun and space
could create weather at the edge of the ionosphere. In January
2022, as the spacecraft passed over South America, it observed
one such earthly disturbance in the ionosphere triggered by the
South Pacific volcano.

"These results are an exciting look at how events on Earth can
affect weather in space, in addition to space weather affecting
Earth," said Jim Spann, space weather lead for NASA's
Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C.
"Understanding space weather holistically will ultimately help us
mitigate its effects on society."

When the volcano erupted, it pushed a giant plume of gases, water
vapor, and dust into the sky. The explosion also created large
pressure disturbances in the atmosphere, leading to strong winds.
As the winds expanded upwards into thinner atmospheric layers,
they began moving faster. Upon reaching the ionosphere and the
edge of space, ICON clocked the windspeeds at up to 450
mph—making them the strongest winds below 120 miles altitude
measured by the mission since its launch.

In the ionosphere, the extreme winds also affected electric
currents. Particles in the ionosphere regularly form an
east-flowing electric current—called the equatorial
electrojet—powered by winds in the lower atmosphere. After the
eruption, the equatorial electrojet surged to five times its
normal peak power and dramatically flipped direction, flowing
westward for a short period.

"It's very surprising to see the electrojet be greatly reversed
by something that happened on Earth's surface," said Joanne Wu, a
physicist at University of California, Berkeley, and co-author on
the new study. "This is something we've only previously seen with
strong geomagnetic storms, which are a form of weather in space
caused by particles and radiation from the sun."

The new research, published in the journal Geophysical Research
Letters, is adding to scientists' understanding of how the
ionosphere is affected by events on the ground as well as from
space. A strong equatorial electrojet is associated with
redistribution of material in the ionosphere, which can disrupt
GPS and radio signals that are transmitted through the region.

Understanding how this complex area of our atmosphere reacts in
the face of strong forces from below and above is a key part of
NASA research. NASA's upcoming Geospace Dynamics Constellation
(GDC) mission will use a fleet of small satellites, much like
weather sensors on the ground, to track the electrical currents
and atmospheric winds coursing through the area. By better
understanding what affects electrical currents in the ionosphere,
scientists can be more prepared to predict severe problems caused
by such disturbances.

The red color in the night sky in Tonga the night before the mid-Januray volcanic eruption. ...

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This week's images ...


Our propagation indicator is this white circle in a blue circle. ...

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A mallard duckling on the Water of Leith, Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

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This effect was created by placing a sparkler behind a flash
bulb. ...

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A display of lotus lanterns outside the Beomnyeonsa Temple in
Seoul. ...

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Traffic during a sandstorm in Baghdad. ...

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Dagnis Rozins, member of band Citi Zeni of Latvia, performs
during a dress rehearsal ahead of the first semi-final of the
2022 Eurovision Song Contest in Turin, Italy. ...

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Sunset at the Washington Channel in Southwest Washington DC. ...

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Raindrops on yellow tulips. ...

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Our cat Muir, 2008-2022. She ate. She slept. She sat on laps ...

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Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...


RSID: <<2022-05-12T23:58Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

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   Closing music SWRG#255:

   Naomi Judd died on April 30, 2022, nineteen days after the final performance of the Judds and a day before the duo's induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame.





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RSID: <<2022-05-15T01:30Z MFSK-64 @ 9925000+1500>>


Mike Oldfield was born Michael Gordon Oldfield, May 15, 1953.

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RSID: <<2022-05-12T02:50Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


This Is A Music Show #165
12 May 2022

0200-0300UTC Thursday on 5850 kHz

via WRMI, Okeechobee USA


TIAnExpressMS w/ Radio Northern Europe International
via Channel 292 in Germany, mainly on 6070 kHz.

Broadcast various dates/times/freqs. Check the schedule here:



James Brown - Suds


The Big Town Boys - Put You Down
Beau Hannon And The Mint Juleps - When Something Is Wrong With My Baby
New York Rock And Roll Ensemble - Asking Too Much


Atom And His Package - Punk Rock Academy
Fetchin' Bones - Briefcase
Eno - Mother Whale Eyeless


The Wailers - One Love
King Tubbys - Disk Jockey Skank
Hubert Laws - Guatemala Connection


Rockets - Cosmic Race


THIS DATA w/ Bert Kaempfert - Lady


Chicken Shack/Christine Perfect/Christine McVie - I'd Rather Go Blind



John Peel's Shed by John Osborne:


TIAMS Website:

Go here for show archives + official shop!


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Thanks for listening!



RSID: <<2022-05-12T02:52Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>

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