RSID: <<2022-05-26T23:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>




Welcome to program 257 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:36 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:54 MFSK32: Why pipe organs sound lower than expected*
  9:10 MFSK64: Ancient Lunar volcanoes could provide water*
12:56 MFSK64: This week's images*
28:16 MFSK32: Closing announcements

* with image(s)



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And visit

We're on Twitter now: @SWRadiogram

From Science News:

Here's why pipe organs seem to violate a rule of sound

A vortex of vibrating air extends pipe length, lowering
fundamental tone

By Bas den Hond
May 18, 2022

A speck of gold dancing to a pipe organ's tune has helped solve a
long-standing mystery: why certain wind instruments violate a
mathematical formula that should describe their sound.

In 1860, physicist Hermann von Helmholtz — famous for his law of
the conservation of energy — devised an equation relating the
wavelength of a pipe's fundamental tone (the lowest frequency at
which it resonates) to pipe length. Generally, the longer a pipe
is, the lower its fundamental tone will be.

But the equation doesn't work in practice. A pipe's fundamental
tone always sounds lower than the pipe's length suggests it
should according to Helmholtz's formula. Fixing this problem
requires adding an "end correction" to the equation. In the case
of open-ended pipes such as flutes and those of organs, the end
correction is 0.6 times the radius of the pipe. Why this was,
nobody could figure out.

A break in the case came in 2010. Instrument builder and restorer
Bernhardt Edskes of Wohlen, Switzerland was tuning an organ when
he spotted a piece of gold that had come loose from a pipe's
gilded lip. Air pumping through the pipe should have carried away
the gold. Instead, it seemed to be trapped in a vortex just above
the pipe's upper rim.

Edskes told his friend, physicist Leo van Hemmen of the Technical
University of Munich, about the observation. Together with
colleagues from Munich and Wageningen University in the
Netherlands, they studied how air moves through playing organ
pipes using cigarette smoke.

When an organ pipe sounds, a vortex indeed forms over the pipe's
rim, the team reported March 14 in Chicago at a meeting of the
American Physical Society. What's more, this vortex is capped by
a hemisphere of resonating air.

This vibrating air cap, van Hemmen says, is the long-sought
explanation for the "end correction." The cap effectively
lengthens the organ pipe by the exact amount that must be tacked
on to Helmholtz's formula to explain the pipe's fundamental tone.

Image: A hemisphere of vibrating air forms above a playing organ
pipe, effectively lengthening the pipe.

Sending Pic:197x193C;








Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...

RSID: <<2022-05-26T23:39Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to





Astronauts may one day drink water from ancient moon volcanoes

by University of Colorado at Boulder
May 18, 2022

Billions of years ago, a series of volcanic eruptions broke loose
on the moon, blanketing hundreds of thousands of square miles of
the orb's surface in hot lava. Over the eons, that lava created
the dark blotches, or maria, that give the face of the moon its
familiar appearance today.

Now, new research from CU Boulder suggests that volcanoes may
have left another lasting impact on the lunar surface: sheets of
ice that dot the moon's poles and, in some places, could measure
dozens or even hundreds of feet thick.

"We envision it as a frost on the moon that built up over time,"
said Andrew Wilcoski, lead author of the new study and a graduate
student in the Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences
(APS) and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
at CU Boulder.

He and his colleagues published their findings this month in The
Planetary Science Journal.

The researchers drew on computer simulations, or models, to try
to recreate conditions on the moon long before complex life arose
on Earth. They discovered that ancient moon volcanoes spewed out
huge amounts of water vapor, which then settled onto the
surface—forming stores of ice that may still be hiding in lunar
craters. If any humans had been alive at the time, they may even
have seen a sliver of that frost near the border between day and
night on the moon's surface.

It's a potential bounty for future moon explorers who will need
water to drink and process into rocket fuel, said study co-author
Paul Hayne.

"It's possible that 5 or 10 meters below the surface, you have
big sheets of ice," said Hayne, assistant professor in APS and

Temporary atmospheres

The new study adds to a growing body of evidence that suggests
that the moon may be awash in a lot more water than scientists
once believed. In a 2020 study, Hayne and his colleagues
estimated that nearly 6,000 square miles of the lunar surface
could be capable of trapping and hanging onto ice—mostly near the
moon's north and south poles. Where all that water came from in
the first place is unclear.

"There are a lot of potential sources at the moment," Hayne said.

Volcanoes could be a big one. The planetary scientist explained
that from 2 to 4 billion years ago, the moon was a chaotic place.
Tens of thousands of volcanoes erupted across its surface during
this period, generating huge rivers and lakes of lava, not unlike
the features you might see in Hawaii today—only much more

"They dwarf almost all of the eruptions on Earth," Hayne said.

Recent research from scientists at the Lunar and Planetary
Institute in Houston shows that these volcanoes likely also
ejected towering clouds made up of mostly carbon monoxide and
water vapor. These clouds then swirled around the moon,
potentially creating thin and short-lived atmospheres.

That got Hayne and Wilcoski wondering: Could that same atmosphere
have left ice on the lunar surface, a bit like frost forming on
the ground after a chilly fall night?

Forever ice

To find out, the duo alongside Margaret Landis, a research
associate at LASP, set out to try to put themselves onto the
surface of the moon billions of years ago.

The team used estimates that, at its peak, the moon experienced
one eruption every 22,000 years, on average. The researchers then
tracked how volcanic gases may have swirled around the moon,
escaping into space over time. And, they discovered, conditions
may have gotten icy.According to the group's estimates, roughly
41% of the water from volcanoes may have condensed onto the moon
as ice.

"The atmospheres escaped over about 1,000 years, so there was
plenty of time for ice to form," Wilcoski said.

There may have been so much ice on the moon, in fact, that you
could, conceivably, have spotted the sheen of frost and thick,
polar ice caps from Earth. The group calculated that about 18
quadrillion pounds of volcanic water could have condensed as ice
during that period. That's more water than currently sits in Lake
Michigan. And the research hints that much of that lunar water
may still be present today.

Those space ice cubes, however, won't necessarily be easy to
find. Most of that ice has likely accumulated near the moon's
poles and may be buried under several feet of lunar dust, or

One more reason, Hayne said, for people or robots to head back
and start digging.

"We really need to drill down and look for it," he said.





This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

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This week's images ...



Early morning by the River Chet in Norfolk, England. ...

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Rain on leaves in Doncaster, England. ...

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An Ezo red fox or kitakitsune and her kit in Sapporo, Japan. ...

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Sunset in Sumerduck, Virginia, May 20. ...

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Ocotillo cluster of flowers at Lost Dutchman State Park, Arizona. ...

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A bloom at the National Arboreturm in Washington DC, May 21. ...

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A rhododendron at the Wageningen Belmonte Arboretum in the
Netherlands. ...

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Our painting of the week is "Oji-Cree Flowers for the Elders" by
Christian Morriseau (Anishinaabe). ...

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Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...


RSID: <<2022-05-26T23:58Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...


Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

WRMI, Radio Miami International,


WINB Shortwave,

Please send reception reports to

And visit

Twitter: @SWRadiogram or

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave






   Closing music SWRG#257:

  Olivier Latry  -  Symphonie No. 5 pour orgue: II. Toccata

  Vangelis - Theme From Antarctica




 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR     [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +     beta 11  Version 2.80 (August 21, 2018)  - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.0.18        +   flmsg-4.0.7                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


 German XP-SP3 with support for asian languages

 German W7 32bit + 64bit


 MEDION Titanium 8008  (since 2003)   [ P4 - 2,6 GHz]

 MSI-CR70-2MP345W7  (since2014)   [i5 -P3560 ( 2 x 2,6GHz) ]



RSID: <<2022-05-29T01:30Z MFSK-64 @ 9925000+1500>>

Gladys Knight (she sang with the Pips) was born May 28, 1944.

Sending Pic:175x250;

Please report your decode to



RSID: <<2022-05-26T02:47Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


This Is A Music Show #167
26 May 2022

0200-0300UTC Thursday on 5850 kHz

via WRMI, Okeechobee USA


TIAnExpressMS w/ Radio Northern Europe International
via Channel 292 in Germany, mainly on 6070 kHz.

Broadcast various dates/times/freqs. Check the schedule here:



Pete Schofield And The Canadian College All-Stars - And I Love Her


The Visible Targets- Candid Affection
Nina Hagen - Herman Is High
Peter Green - Tribal Dance


Tracy Huang - If Not For You
Jerry Goodman & Jan Hammer - Earth (Still Our Only Home)
Dillinger - Nature's Way


Patti Smith Group - Radio Ethiopia/Abyssinia


THIS DATA w/ Bert Kaempfert - The Bandit


Jerry Jerome - Instrumental (Italian) & Vocal


TIAMS Website:

Go here for show archives + official shop!


Please send reception reports/comments:

Follow TIAMS on Twitter:


Thanks for listening!



RSID: <<2022-05-26T02:48Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>

Sending Pic:300x300C;





 RNEI 29 Playlist, May 2022 - for 🌴 WRMI 🌴 (Spotify Stream numbers included) 


 J&K-Pop Inspiration Section




YT date



Dolly Style - SAYONARA





YOHIO - Daydreams












RNEI Indie Section







Dopha - Pity Party



- - -



Helena Routa - Jumalasta Seuraava            (Next to God)





Heidrunna - Daydreamer












Reiley - Blah Blah Blah       




RNEI Folk Section


Hrím - Ljómi



- - -









Fusion with M3 for the data song







Pixie Ninja - Auditory Hallucinations


(< 1k)

(Chosen by Mamma, this song is just perfect for data!)

- - -










Mamma's Mest Metal







Danheim & Heldom - Blodfest





Heldom - Myrkr



- - -



Porridge Radio - Sweet





Nordic Giants - Philosophy of Mind



- - -










Stephen's Feature - Welsh singer/songwriter Meinir Gwilym 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿







Meinir Gwilym - Glaw (5102)



- - -



Meinir Gwilym - Gorffen


(< 1k)



Meinir Gwilym - Tre'r Ceiri



- - -



Meinir Gwilym - Hen Gitâr 2


(< 1k)

- - -