RSID: <<2023-01-27T00:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

Welcome to program 289 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:31 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:37 MFSK32: Rare earth elements from coal waste*
  8:46 MFSK64: New potential for ancient mint plants*
13:54 MFSK64: This week's images*
28:36 MFSK32: Closing announcements

* with image(s)


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From Science News:

Rare earth elements could be pulled from coal waste

The scheme would provide valuable metals and help clean up coal
mining's dirty legacy

By Erin Wayman
January 20, 2023

In Appalachia's coal country, researchers envision turning toxic
waste into treasure. The pollution left behind by abandoned mines
is an untapped source of rare earth elements.

Rare earths are a valuable set of 17 elements needed to make
everything from smartphones and electric vehicles to fluorescent
bulbs and lasers. With global demand skyrocketing and China
having a near-monopoly on rare earth production - the United
States has only one active mine - there's a lot of interest in
finding alternative sources, such as ramping up recycling.

Pulling rare earths from coal waste offers a two-for-one deal: By
retrieving the metals, you also help clean up the pollution.

Long after a coal mine closes, it can leave a dirty legacy. When
some of the rock left over from mining is exposed to air and
water, sulfuric acid forms and pulls heavy metals from the rock.
This acidic soup can pollute waterways and harm wildlife.

Recovering rare earths from what's called acid mine drainage
won't single-handedly satisfy rising demand for the metals,
acknowledges Paul Ziemkiewicz, director of the West Virginia
Water Research Institute in Morgantown. But he points to several

Unlike ore dug from typical rare earth mines, the drainage is
rich with the most-needed rare earth elements. Plus, extraction
from acid mine drainage also doesn't generate the radioactive
waste that's typically a by-product of rare earth mines, which
often contain uranium and thorium alongside the rare earths. And
from a practical standpoint, existing facilities to treat acid
mine drainage could be used to collect the rare earths for
processing. "Theoretically, you could start producing tomorrow,"
Ziemkiewicz says.

From a few hundred sites already treating acid mine drainage,
nearly 600 metric tons of rare earth elements and cobalt -
another in-demand metal - could be produced annually, Ziemkiewicz
and colleagues estimate.

Currently, a pilot project in West Virginia is taking material
recovered from an acid mine drainage treatment site and
extracting and concentrating the rare earths.

If such a scheme proves feasible, Ziemkiewicz envisions a future
in which cleanup sites send their rare earth hauls to a central
facility to be processed, and the elements separated. Economic
analyses suggest this wouldn't be a get-rich scheme. But, he
says, it could be enough to cover the costs of treating the acid
mine drainage.


Image: Coal mining can pollute nearby waterways, creating acidic
water rich in heavy metals ...

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RSID: <<2023-01-27T00:38Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

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Researchers uncover new potential for ancient mint plants

by Emilie Lorditch
Michigan State University
January 24, 2023

MSU researchers have traced the evolution of mint genomes for
potential future applications that range from medicines to
pesticides to antimicrobials.

The mint family of herbs, which includes sage, rosemary, basil,
and even woody plants like teak, offers an invigorating jolt to
our senses of smell and taste. Michigan State University
researchers have found that these plants have diversified their
specialized natural characteristics through the evolution of
their chemistry.

"People easily recognize members of the mint family for their
specialized metabolites," said Bjrn Hamberger, an associate
professor and James K. Billman Jr., M.D., Endowed Professor in
the College of Natural Science. "Metabolites are an efficient way
for plants to defend themselves because they can't run away."

Since 2016, Hamberger has been studying specialized metabolites
in plants called terpenoids, which are essential in protecting
plants from predators and pathogens and are also common
ingredients in green and sustainable agrochemicals, antioxidants,
cosmetics and fragrances.

Hamberger worked with Robin Buell, a former MSU genomics
researcher now at the University of Georgia, who sequenced
several mint plant genomes. This collaboration with Buell's team
led Hamberger's graduate students, Abigail Bryson and Emily
Lanier, to discover how several genomes of the mint family have
evolved and how these chemistries have emerged over the past 60
to 70 million years.

"Over millions of years, plants have adapted and evolved for
their particular niches where they thrive, and that means that
these chemistries are diverse and have clearly adjusted to their
environment," Hamberger said. "So, we try to identify and
discover pathways to these specialized metabolites that plants
A cluster of beautyberries. Credit: Bjrn Hamberger

Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Bryson identified the
genomic organization of terpenoid biosynthesis, and Lanier
analyzed the chemical pathways. Together, Lanier and Bryson
discovered something highly unusual in the beautyberry genome
from the mint family. It has a large biosynthetic gene cluster. A
BGC is a group of genes located close together in the genome that
are involved in the same metabolic pathways. These genes are like
the individual pearls on a necklace - separate and yet connected.
Additionally, Bryson and Lanier found variants of this BGC in six
other species in the mint family.

"We are learning that the physical location of genes within the
genome is important," Bryson said. "It can drive evolution of
specialized metabolic pathways in the plant, leading to a vast
diversity of interesting natural plant compounds."

BGCs are well known in the bacterial world but their role in
plants is not fully understood. The BGC cluster of the
beautyberry plant contains genes that encode two distinct
terpenoid pathways. The team found these terpenoids accumulate in
various parts of the plant, such as the leaves and roots, and may
play distinct roles in adaptation.

"It's the same base molecule, but each species is making its own
version and modifying it in different ways to fit their survival
needs," Lanier said.

Hamberger describes it like a recipe that everyone has a copy of
and changes to suit their requirements and preferences.

Previous research has led to unique medical uses for mint plants.
For example, Indian Coleus can be used as a natural treatment for
glaucoma and Texas sage is a natural antimicrobial that is
effective against tuberculosis. The new molecular adaptations
Hamberger and his team have found open the door for future
applications of natural plant products from the mint family.

"Our team has been excited about the opportunities within the
mint family," said Hamberger. "Those mint enzymes, as in the
American beautyberry plant, give us the ability to make
plant-natural products in the lab, including - hopefully in the
future - natural good-smelling mosquito repellants."

The research was published in the journal Nature Communications.


Accompanying image of mint leaves ...

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This week's images ...

Comet ZTF, the "green comet," captured by an astrophotographer in
Arizona. It passes around the sun every 50000 years. ...

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A (European) robin looks at the camera as it perches on a car
wing mirror in Somerset, England. ...

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A water feature with 22 immersed lights in Jubilee Park, Canary
Wharf, part of this years Winter Lights festival in London. ...

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Glencoe Lochan in Scotland after sunset, with mountain in the
distance. ...

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Sunset from Kinghorn on the Fife coast. ...

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A sea eagle at Camperdown Wildlife Park in Dundee, Scotland. ...

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Sunrise at the Tidal Basin in Washington DC, with still leafless
and bloomless cherry trees, January 21. ...

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Our painting of the week is "Cortez Iron" (1983) by Cleveland
artist Ed Mieczkowski (1929-2017). ...

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Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...

RSID: <<2023-01-27T00:58Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


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   Closing music SWRG#289:

   "Orleans" by David Crosby (1941-2023)





 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

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RSID: <<2023-01-26T02:48Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


This Is A Music Show #196
26 January 2023

0200-0300UTC Thursday on 5850 kHz

via WRMI, Okeechobee USA


TIAnExpressMS w/ Radio Northern Europe International
via Channel 292 in Germany, mainly on 6070 kHz.

Broadcast various dates/times/freqs. Check the schedule here:




田代ユリ - California Dreaming


Naomi Akimoto - Bewitched       
Change - Mutual Attraction
GB Interprets Little Dragon - After The Rain


SP - Transmission
Love Unlimited Orchestra - Strange Games And Things (Money Breaks EDIT)
Radio Canada - Interval Signal, ID, News Intro from 1977
Ryksopp - Sparks (Roni Size Remix)
Spectre - Spectre Overseas


Morgan Caney And Kamal Joory - Blanket


THIS DATA w/ Bert Kaempfert - I Can't Help Remembering You


シャープ・ファイブ - Bulldog


TIAMS Website:

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RSID: <<2023-01-26T02:50Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


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Invisible Telephone



RSID: <<2023-01-26T02:52Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


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RSID: <<2023-01-26T13:51Z MFSK-64 @ 15770000+1500>>

This Is An Express Music Show
January 2023



Enoch Light And The Light Brigade - Pass And I Call You


The Romeos - Eyes Of Pearl
Zalatnay Sarolta - Kső Esti rn
James Brown And His Famous Flames - I Got The Feelin'
The Invictas - The Hump
Idle Race - Imposters Of Lifes Magazine


THIS DATA - Bert Kaempfert - That Happy Feeling


The Sound - Kinetic


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Thanks for listening!




RSID: <<2023-01-26T13:52Z MFSK-64 @ 15770000+1500>>

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RSID: <<2023-01-27T11:30Z MFSK-64 @ 15770000+1500>>

Sarah McLachlan was born January 28, 1968

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