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RSID: <<2023-06-29T23:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

Welcome to program 311 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:40 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:48 MFSK32: Bigger bottles keep champagne bubbly for decades*
  8:07 MFSK64: Regular daytime naps linked to healthier brains
11:39 MFSK64: This week's images*
27:40 MFSK32: Closing announcements

* with image(s)

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And visit

We're on Twitter now: @SWRadiogram



Bigger bottles keep champagne bubbly for decades: Study

by American Chemical Society
June 27, 2023

Tiny bubbles bursting in a drinker's face and the bite of
carbonation are all part of the experience when sipping champagne
and sparkling wines. But how long can these drinks be stored in
sealed bottles before they go flat? According to researchers
reporting in ACS Omega, the answer depends on the container's
size. They estimate a 40-year shelf-life for 750-milliliter
(25-ounce) bottles, and 82 and 132 years for 1.5-liter (50-ounce)
and 3-liter (101-ounce) bottles, respectively.

Champagne and other sparkling wines get their bubbliness and
tingly sensation from carbon dioxide, which is generated during a
second round of fermentation that happens inside their bottles.
Combining yeasts, sugar and wine launches the production of this
gas and additional alcohol. Although the yeast die within a few
months, complex aromas develop as the bottles age undisturbed for
15 months to several decades. But at the same time, the beverage
is losing carbon dioxide, which is slowly escaping through the
sealed metal caps or corks. So, Gérard Liger-Belair and
colleagues wanted to answer the question: How does the size of
the bottle influence how long you can age a champagne before it's

The researchers measured the carbon dioxide in different
champagne vintages aged for multiple decades, and estimated the
original amount of yeast-produced carbon dioxide. They found that
the amount of gas inside the vessels, which were sealed with
metal caps, decreased the longer the bottles aged. For example,
the oldest vintage from 1974 lost the most carbonation, nearly
80%. Additionally, the team observed a correlation between the
volume of a bottle and the carbon dioxide level, such that larger
bottles retained gas substantially better than smaller ones.

In the end, the researchers developed a formula to calculate a
bottle's shelf life, or how long aged champagne would still
spontaneously produce bubbles when poured in a glass. They
predicted a shelf life of 40 years for standard 750-milliliter
bottles, 82 years for 1.5-liter bottles and 132 years for 3-liter
bottles, after which point the champagne would be flat. From
their large selection of aged champagne, going back nearly 50
years, the researchers say they've shown how the drink's
bubbliness over time depends on the bottle's size.


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Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...

RSID: <<2023-06-29T23:38Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

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From New Atlas:

Regular daytime naps linked to bigger, healthier brains

A new study has found a causal link between napping and
brain volume, an indicator of brain health

By Paul McClure
June 22, 2023

Napping. Some people do it, and some people don't. A new study
has found that those who are genetically predisposed to taking
regular daytime naps may have larger, healthier brains as a

Pretty much all of us take daytime naps when we're toddlers, with
many ditching the habit when we're in school and throughout
adulthood. But almost a third of us (27%) resume napping when
we're 65 and over.

Previous studies have suggested that napping can boost cognitive
performance, with a brief, five-to-15-minute nap providing a
benefit that can last for between one and three hours. Aging
reduces reaction times and memory and often sees an increase in
the prevalence of cognitive impairment. With the world's
population aging, it's important that modifiable risk factors
associated with cognitive performance, such as sleep habits, are

To that end, researchers from University College London have led
a study looking at whether there is a causal link between daytime
napping and brain health.

The researchers recruited 378,932 participants of European
ancestry aged between 40 and 69, drawn from the UK Biobank. Using
a technique called Mendelian randomization, they looked at
snippets of DNA to determine people's likelihood of habitual
napping. Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured
variation in genes of known function to examine the causal
effects of modifiable risk factors.

Cognitive tests of visual memory and reaction time were
administered to all participants, and the researchers viewed some
participants' magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans for
structural brain changes. The participants were also asked to
self-report their napping habits.

The researchers compared the brain health and cognitive
functioning of people genetically ‘programmed' to nap to those
who weren't and found that, overall, people programmed to nap had
a larger total brain volume, a marker of brain health, especially
in older adults. A reduction in brain volume, also called
atrophy, is associated with cognition-related diseases such as
mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

The researchers estimated that the average difference in total
brain volume between predisposed and non-predisposed nappers was
equal to 2.6 to 6.5 years of aging. But in other measures –
hippocampal volume, reaction time, and visual processing – there
was no difference in performance between the two groups. The
hippocampus is a complex structure buried deep in the brain with
a major role in memory and learning. Hippocampal volume, in
particular, has been linked to a decline in cognitive function.

Based on their findings, the researchers say there is a "modest
causal association" between habitual daytime napping and larger
total brain volume.

"This is the first study to attempt to untangle the causal
relationship between habitual daytime napping and cognitive and
structural brain outcomes," said Valentina Paz, the lead author
of the study. "By looking at genes set at birth, Mendelian
randomization avoids confounding factors occurring throughout
life that may influence associations between napping and health
outcomes. Our study points to a causal link between habitual
napping and larger total brain volume."

While the current study didn't specify the duration of naps taken
by participants, previous studies suggest that naps of 30 minutes
or less provide the best short-term cognitive benefits, with
napping early in the day less likely to disrupt nighttime sleep.

The researchers note a particular limitation of their study,
namely that all participants were of white European ancestry,
meaning the results may not be generalizable to other
ethnicities. Nonetheless, they say their study's findings
demonstrate the benefits that can be gained from taking short

"I hope studies such as this one showing the health benefits of
short naps can help to reduce the stigma that still exists around
daytime napping," said Victoria Garfield, one of the study's

The study was published in the journal Sleep Health.

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to




This week's images ...

Simon's Tavern (est 1934) in Chicago. ...

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A fisherman as the sun rises over the Atlantic Ocean in Bal
Harbour, Florida. ...

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The white cliffs of Dover are illuminated in the U.K.'s "warming
stripes," which represent the U.K.'s average temperature from
1884 to 2022 with shades of blue for colder years and red for
hotter years, June 19. ...

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A tree swallow on the eastern shore of Maryland, a winner of the
Audobon Photography Awards. ...

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A cedar waxwing in Santa Cruz, California, a winner of the
Audobon Photography Awards. ...

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Storks nest on the top of a building at sunset in Izmir, Turkey. ...

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Stonehenge at the 2023 summer solstice. ...

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A tree near Oban, Scotland. ...

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Our painting of the week is by Juan Jose Gomez de la Torre (Spain
b. 1959).

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Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...

RSID: <<2023-06-29T23:57Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>



This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...


Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

WRMI, Radio Miami International,


WINB Shortwave,

Please send reception reports to

And visit

Twitter: @SWRadiogram or

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave


     SWRG#311 closing song:






 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR on Windows 11      [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +      HDSDR 2.81 beta6   - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.1.26        +   flmsg-4.0.20                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


 Mirosoft Windows 11 Home

 German W7 32bit + 64bit


 ASUS S501MD (since 2023) [i7-12700 12th Gen. 12 x 2100 MHz]

 MSI-CR70-2MP345W7  (since 2014)   [i5 -P3560 ( 2 x 2600 MHz) ]            =RNEIxtra#8




<<2023-07-02T11:23Z MFSK-64 @ 6070000+1500>>


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