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for %%a in (%MyFiles%) do ffmpeg -i "%%a" -y -lavfi showspectrumpic=s=1920x1080:color=fiery:gain=.7:fscale=lin:orientation=0:saturation=1:mode=combined:legend=enabled:start=0:stop=8000 "%%~na.jpg"





RSID: <<2024-02-09T00:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

Welcome to program 341 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:43 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:51 MFSK32: Sugar cane waste converted to concrete substitute*
  8:37 MFSK64: Compressed air storage system replaces batteries
14:46 MFSK64: This week's images*
28:42 MFSK32: Closing announcements

* with image(s)

Please send reception reports to

And visit

We're on X/Twitter now: @SWRadiogram

From New Atlas:

Sugar cane waste converted into concrete-beating Sugarcrete

By Ben Coxworth
February 06, 2024

After sugarcane crops have been harvested, a great deal of
fibrous stalk waste known as bagasse is left over. That substance
has been incorporated into an eco-friendly building material
called Sugarcrete, which recently won an international Climate
Positive Award.

The material consists of sugarcane bagasse combined with
proprietary mineral-based binders. This mixture is compressed and
left to cure, resulting in high-strength blocks that can be used
in place of traditional clay or concrete bricks.

But why would anyone want to make such a substitution?

Well, for starters, the university claims that Sugarcrete fully
cures much faster than concrete (one week as opposed to four), it
weighs one quarter to one fifth as much per same-sized block, and
it's significantly less expensive to produce.

The latter is a particularly big consideration in regions where
sugarcane is grown. Instead of being left with a waste product
that is often just dumped in landfills, farmers could sell their
bagasse to local companies which would use it in Sugarcrete. That
material could in turn be utilized in local construction
projects, which might not have been affordable if imported
concrete was the only option.

Additionally, Sugarcrete's carbon footprint is reportedly only
15% to 20% that of concrete. According to some estimates, the
generation of the heat used to produce traditional portland
cement (which is used in concrete) is responsible for 5% to 8% of
all human-made CO2 emissions.

Sugarcrete has already been demonstrated in prototype modular
floor slabs, in which loads are distributed throughout the
structure via connections between interlocking blocks. Although
some steel reinforcements are utilized, the Sugarcrete slabs
utilize up to 90% less steel than slabs made of concrete, which
is more likely to crack under pressure.

Late last year at the United Nations Climate Change Conference,
environmental group Green Cross UK selected Sugarcrete to be the
winner of the circular economy section of its Climate Positive
Awards. The awards recognize initiatives that address climate
change, with the circular economy section aimed specifically at
projects which reduce waste by reusing existing materials.

The Sugarcrete team is now seeking agricultural partners in the
Global South nations as a next step towards commercialization of
the technology.

Source: University of East London


Image: A modular reusable floor slab made of Sugarcrete ...

Sending Pic:158x160C;

Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...




RSID: <<2024-02-09T00:38Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to



From TechXplore:

Compressed air energy storage systems could replace conventional
batteries as energy providers, say scientists

by University of Sharjah
February 5, 2024

A group of scientists have found compressed air energy storage
systems to have the potential of replacing conventional
electrochemical batteries as a cheaper alternative, and with
better storage capacity that is even sufficient to keep AC
gadgets running.

The team led by University of Sharjah's Professor of Sustainable
and Renewable Energy Abdul Hai Alami have published the results
of their research titled "Performance assessment of buoyancy work
energy storage system with various buoy materials, coatings, and
gasses" in Journal of Energy Storage.

The paper, according to the authors, expands and draws on an
earlier 2022 publication titled "Experimental evaluation of
compressed air energy storage as a potential replacement of
electrochemical batteries" published in the same journal.

The researchers work comes under the appellation "buoyancy work
energy storage" which depends on applying a force through pulleys
and ropes on a floating buoy to descend it below the water
surface during periods of high energy production. Once the buoy
reaches its maximum allowed depth, it is locked in place using an

When energy is to be harvested back, the buoy is allowed to
ascend to the surface of the water body, rotating an electrical
generator in the process, which facilitates the transformation of
the stored potential energy into useful electrical energy.

Prof. Alami notes, "Overall, a levelized cost of electricity to a
system of this nature that would be coupled to an offshore wind
turbine array (i.e., the London array) is expected to be 0.978
cents($)/kWh, which is considered to be competitive to other
technologies, such as batteries, standing at 8.69 cent($)/kWh,
for the same conditions.

"Since the idea is based on a basic physical principle that
appeals to many scientists, its implementation potential is
understandable and straightforward and brings the industry one
step closer to replacing the total dependence on batteries in
energy generation."

Prof. Alami says he and his co-authors now have a project that
"truly showcases the potential of replacing conventional
electrochemical energy storage, by a cheaper alternative, all
while having an AC output, which is desirable for most domestic

Prof. Alami hopes that the project and the two articles he and
his colleagues have published will raise awareness that batteries
are not the sole method of energy storage despite the current
bias towards electrochemical batteries which is seen by many "as
the go-to storage technology [and] the first answer one would
think of when asked about energy storage devices."

In their first study, the authors show novelty in terms of
testing compressed air energy storage systems against
conventional electrochemical batteries and provide ground for
comparison with proper quantification coupled with mathematical
evidence that compressed energy storage can replace conventional
electrochemical batteries.

The setup of the experiment conducted by the scientists consists
of air tanks, turbo expanders (air motors), gearboxes and an AC
permanent magnet generator. "These equipment[s] provided an
experimental roundtrip efficiency of around 60% equipment with
more room for future enhancements," the scientists note in their

Says Prof. Alami, "For example, the research has concluded that
at an operating pressure of 10–12 bar, and a storage pressure of
80–100 bar, an operation carried out by a 12 V battery is
equivalent to storing 12 m3 of air in the aforementioned

"Moreover, in terms of economy of scale, a levelized cost of
electricity for the compressed air energy storage system of
$8.09/kWh/kW was achieved, compared to that for a 1400 kWh lead
acid battery of $44.6/kWh/kW."

The authors say their work holds promises for the future and
write that their experimental evaluation "is expected to pave the
way for further experiments and innovation in specialized air
handling turbines for large-scale energy storage."

They write, "In any case, the adaptation of the compressed air
energy storage system is viable and would require sincere
adaptation of a new storage mix paradigm, especially in the
provision of appropriate storage tanks and their pertinent space
required. This space will mainly be underground, akin to
underground tanks in gas stations, and not much larger in

Meanwhile, they add that compressed air energy storage is a
viable and scalable energy storage technology that can be used
on- or off-grid, exhibiting "a strong potential for replacing
electrochemical batteries for grid-scale energy storage.

"This work has highlighted [and] experimentally assessed the
technical feasibility of using a compressed air energy storage
system to replace a conventional battery system," they write.

The findings of their research, particularly in their earlier
study, have already garnered considerable interest from the
industry, the authors claim. They say some leading international
companies and startups have already approached them for the
possibility of industrial scale application.

Besides some leading companies in the United Arab Emirates (UA),
where the research is conducted, Prof. Alami mentions a few
"international companies and startups, such as TerraStor
( in Texas, U.S., (who) are in touch with the team
on a regular basis for discussions on latest technologies."

The interest in the project is expected to grow because,
according to Prof. Alami, his team have obtained "definite and a
solid proof that compressed air energy storage has the potential
to become a strong competitor in the energy storage scene to
pre-established energy storage technologies, like electrochemical

The authors make reference in their study to plenty of practical
implications, which include, among other things, energy storage,
cooling applications, as well as enhancing the round-trip
efficiency and decreasing the cost of energy systems. Since
compressed air energy storage systems are scalable, then they can
be implemented for a wide spectrum of applications, the authors

The authors do not deny the utility of electrochemical options
which can provide high energy density with low maintenance
requirements. However, they note that "their production costs and
fast degradation constrain their widespread use in grid-scale
applications … considering other types of energy."

The authors map the current energy storage scene. For instance,
they point to fuel cells and flow batteries which "can mitigate
the low energy density of batteries when compared to fossil fuels
such as petrol … However, these fuel cells are expensive to
install, and the production of hydrogen requires substantial
amounts of energy, thus reducing its usefulness in many

They find that the "The integration of energy storage systems
with other types of energy generation resources, allows
electricity to be conserved and used later, improving the
efficiency of energy exchange with the grid and mitigating
greenhouse gas emissions.

"Moreover, storage provisions aid power plants function at a
smaller base load even at high demand periods thus, initial
investment and electricity generation costs will significantly

The main thrust of the project is to provide evidence that
batteries are not the only available option for energy storage,
especially on the large-scale.

"Our research illustrates that compressed air energy storage is a
viable alternative to batteries, especially when underground
caverns are available for large-scale energy storage," said Prof.

Provided by University of Sharjah


This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to





This week's images ...

UNESCO's World Radio Day is 13 February. ...

Sending Pic:257x120C;



"Vektor," an audio-visual light installation by Christopher
Bauder, at Kraftwerk in Berlin, February 1. ...

Sending Pic:195x130C;

A monarch butterfly caterpillar feeding on a swan plant in
Lincoln, New Zealand. ...

Sending Pic:203x145C;

An exhibition by the Japanese collective teamLab at the recently
opened 325-metre Azabudai Hills tower in Tokyo. ...

Sending Pic:150x198C;


Full moon over Ardrishaig, Argyll, Scotland. ...

Sending Pic:228x302;





Migratory birds in Dibir Haor, Sylhet, Bangladesh. ...

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The first Hyacinth of the season, 'Purple Sensation,' at the
Trial Garden of the Dallas Arboretum.

Sending Pic:140x181C;

Our painting of the week is "Light Flight" (2023) by Sean William
Randall (Canadian, b.1965). ...

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Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...



RSID: <<2024-02-09T00:58Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...

Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

WRMI, Radio Miami International,


WINB Shortwave,

Please send reception reports to

And visit

Twitter: @SWRadiogram or

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave

     SWRG#341 closing song:






 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR on Windows 11      [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +      HDSDR 2.81 beta6   - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.1.26        +   flmsg-4.0.20                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


 Mirosoft Windows 11 Home

 German W7 32bit + 64bit


 ASUS S501MD (since 2023) [i7-12700 12th Gen. 12 x 2100 MHz]

 MSI-CR70-2MP345W7  (since 2014)   [i5 -P3560 ( 2 x 2600 MHz) ]


























RSID: <<2024-02-08T13:00Z MFSK-128 @ 15770000+1500>>

--- RNEIxtra #3/ RNEI #34x ---
1. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Court Begins on a Blue Note Scale | 逆転裁判 ~開廷のブルーノート・スケール
2. Phoenix Wright ~ Objection! | 成歩堂龍一 ~異議あり!
3. The Steel Samurai: Warrior of Neo Olde Tokyo | 大江戸戦士トノサマン
4. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Justice for All - Court Begins on a Blue Note Scale | 逆転裁判2 ~開廷のブルーノート・スケール
5. Triumphant Return - Miles Edgeworth | 御剣怜侍 ~大いなる復活
6. Furio Tigre ~ Swingin’ Tiger | 芝九蔵虎ノ助 ~スウィンギン・ゼニトラ
7. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Trials and Tribulations - Court Begins on a Blue Note Scale | 逆転裁判3 ~開廷のブルーノート・スケール
8. Godot - The Fragrance of Darkness; That is Coffee | ゴドー ~珈琲は闇色の薫り
9. Rise from the Ashes – Epilogue | 蘇る逆転・終幕
10. Trucy’s Theme ~ Child of Magic | みぬきのテーマ ~魔術の子

Til vi møtes igjen,
Ha det!




RSID: <<2024-02-11T02:30Z MFSK-64 @ 5950000+1500>>


Carole King Klein was born February 9, 1942.

Sending Pic:189x240;

Please report your decode to


Here is a timeline of "data transmission via BC shortwave":

2013-03-16 - 2017-06-17   VoA Radiogram  000-220  USA (Continuation under private management as SWRG)
2013-08-31 - until now    KBC Radiogram           NL  (without count, earliest note in my chronicle)
2016-03-23 - 2017-01-14   DIGI DX         01- 44  UK  (Among other things also *.mid transferred)
2016-06-17 - 2019-01-01   IBC DIGITAL    001-134  I   (my own count)
2017-06-25 - until now    SWRG           001-3
41  USA (and further ongoing)
2017-11-?? - 2018-12-23   BSR Radiogram   01- 44  USA (Broad Spectrum Radio)
2018-07-25 - 2019-04-06   SSR Radiogram   01- 33  NL  (Slow Scan Radio)
2019-02-21 - 2023-08-03   TIAMS          001-222  CAN (This Is A Music Show)
2020-02-15 - until now    RNEI            01- 48  UK  (and further ongoing)
2020-03-07 - 2023-08-06   TIAEMS 03/2020-07/2023  CAN (This Is An Express Music Show)
2021-11-28 - until now    Pop Shop Radio          CAN (first find of a playlist in a spectrogram scan)
Projects with digital playlists or content:



Active SHOWS:


SWRG - Shortwave Radiogram - Virginia, USA         KD9XB    M.Hirst-SWRG



KBC Radiogram - Virginia ==> Florida, USA     KD9XB ==> WD4AH        KG4LAC-KBC



Radio Northern Europe International - County Hamshire, UK

Radio Carpathia - Transylvania, Romania

Pop Shop Radio - British Columbia, Canada
          Tony Pavick

Radio Catface International -
San Jose, California, USA

CatfaceMcRadio   CatfaceMcVideo



DK Radio - Mr.DoubleK  - Transylvania, Romania [via RNEI]



Data with Jeff - Tennessee, USA  [via Radio Carpathia]  KG4ZIE



Ended SHOWS:


VOA Radiogram - Virginia, USA      ===> SWRG    KD9XB    M.Hirst-VOA



STF Radiogram - Toronto, Canada



BSR Radiogram - Oklahoma, USA                   KG5JST



DIGI DX - Lancashire, UK



SSR Radiogram - Amersfoort, Netherlands         PA0ETE






TIAMS / TIAEMS - Radiogram - Toronto, Canada



Music on Shortwave


HFZone WRMI-B23 Human Readable SKedGrid ++