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for %%a in (%MyFiles%) do ffmpeg -i "%%a" -y -lavfi showspectrumpic=s=1920x1080:color=fiery:gain=.7:fscale=lin:orientation=0:saturation=1:mode=combined:legend=enabled:start=0:stop=8000 "%%~na.jpg"





RSID: <<2024-02-23T00:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


Welcome to program 343 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:44 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:52 MFSK32: Use of decimal point is older than thought
  6:30 MFSK64: Russia labels RFE/RL "undesirable organization"*
10:11 MFSK64: This week's images*
27:56 MFSK32: Closing announcements

* with image(s)

Please send reception reports to

And visit

We're on X/Twitter now: @SWRadiogram


Use of decimal point is 1.5 centuries older than historians

by Bob Yirka
February 20, 2024

A mathematical historian at Trinity Wester University in Canada,
has found use of a decimal point by a Venetian merchant 150 years
before its first known use by German mathematician Christopher
Clavius. In his paper published in the journal Historia
Mathematica, Glen Van Brummelen describes how he found the
evidence of decimal use in a volume called "Tabulae," and its
significance to the history of mathematics.

The invention of the decimal point led to the development of the
decimal system, and that in turn made it easier for people
working in multiple fields to calculate non-whole numbers
(fractions) as easily as whole numbers. Prior to this new
discovery, the earliest known use of the decimal point was by
Christopher Clavius as he was creating astronomical tables—the
resulting work was published in 1593.

The new discovery was made in a part of a manuscript written by
Giovanni Bianchini in the 1440s. Van Brummelen was discussing a
section of trigonometric tables with a colleague when he noticed
some of the numbers included a dot in the middle. One example was
10.4, which Bianchini then multiplied by 8 in the same way as is
done with modern mathematics. The finding shows that a decimal
point to represent non-whole numbers occurred approximately 150
years earlier than previously thought by math historians.

Giovanni Bianchini worked as a merchant in Venice for many years
before being appointed to an administrative role with a major
estate owned by the powerful d'Este family. In this role, he also
managed assets and investments, giving him a strong background in
mathematics. He also published astronomy texts, demonstrating his
ability to plot planetary motion and to predict when an eclipse
would occur.

The finding suggests that Bianchini played a more important role
in the development of math fundamentals than previously known.
Van Brummelen notes that, as a merchant, Bianchini would have
traveled extensively, including to places in the Islamic world,
where math concepts were being developed, possibly influencing
his use of non-whole numbers and ways to represent them more

Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...




RSID: <<2024-02-23T00:36Z MFSK-64 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to






From the Voice of America:

Russia Labels RFE/RL 'Undesirable Organization'

Liam Scott
February 20, 2024


The Russian government on Tuesday labeled VOA's sister outlet
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as an "undesirable organization"
in a move that underscores the Kremlin's harsh repression of

The new designation opens RFE/RL staffers, donors and sources to
criminal charges, the Prague-based outlet reported.

The outlet was added to a registry of "undesirable organizations"
maintained by Russia's Ministry of Justice, becoming the 142nd
organization to be labeled that way.

RFE/RL President Stephen Capus said the designation "is just the
latest example of how the Russian government views truthful
reporting as an existential threat."

"Millions of Russians have relied on us for decades — including
record-breaking audiences over the past few days since the death
of Aleksei Navalny — and this attempt to stifle us will only make
RFE/RL work harder to bring free and independent journalism to
the Russian people," Capus said in a statement.

Russia's Washington embassy did not immediately reply to a VOA
email requesting comment.

Russia's "undesirable organization" law was adopted in 2015.
Dozens of media organizations have been labeled as "undesirable"
since 2021, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists.
Among them are Meduza, Novaya Gazeta Europe and Bellingcat.

Moscow has targeted RFE/RL for years.

In 2017, Russian authorities labeled the outlet a so-called
"foreign agent." Since then, RFE/RL has refused to pay multiple
fines totaling more than $14 million for not complying with the

The foreign agent law came into effect in 2012, and since then it
has been used to target groups and individuals critical of the
Kremlin. Russia has declared VOA a "foreign agent" as well.

More than 30 RFE/RL employees have also been listed as "foreign

RFE/RL journalist Alsu Kurmasheva has been jailed in Russia since
October 2023 on charges of failing to register as a so-called
"foreign agent."

A dual U.S.-Russian national, Kurmasheva traveled to Russia in
May 2023 for a family emergency. When she tried to leave the
country in June, her passports were confiscated. She was detained
while waiting for them to be returned.

In addition to the foreign agent charge, Kurmasheva is also
facing accusations of spreading false information about the
Russian army. If convicted, she faces a combined sentence of up
to 15 years in prison.

Kurmasheva and her employer reject the charges against her.

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This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to






This week's images ...


Tourists release sky lanterns during the Pingxi Lantern Festival in New Taipei City on February 17, 2024

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A dome house covered with snow in the Black Sea region of Turkey,
February 7. ...

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A participant in the lemon festival in Menton, France. ...

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Crew team at sunset, Riley's Lock, Potomac, Maryland, February
20. ...

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A New York, Susquehanna & Western Railway locomotive at Deposit,
New York, January 10. ...

Sending Pic:140x201C;

Crocuses on the banks of the Potomac River, with the Washington
Monumnet in the background. ...

Sending Pic:113x240C;


The University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, which conducts
full-moon snowshoe hikes. ...

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Snow in Olney, Maryland, near Washington DC, February 17. It
quickly melted. ...

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An early spring almond blossom (Prunus dulcis 'Robijn') at the
University of Oxford Botanic Garden and Arboretum. ...

Sending Pic:180x178C;

Our painting of the week is "Northern Lights" (2015) by Chris
Cyprus (British, b.1971). ...

Sending Pic:196x194C;


Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...




RSID: <<2024-02-23T00:57Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...

Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

WRMI, Radio Miami International,


WINB Shortwave,

Please send reception reports to

And visit

Twitter: @SWRadiogram or

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave

     SWRG#343 closing song:






 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR on Windows 11      [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +      HDSDR 2.81 beta6   - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.1.26        +   flmsg-4.0.20                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


 Mirosoft Windows 11 Home

 German W7 32bit + 64bit


 ASUS S501MD (since 2023) [i7-12700 12th Gen. 12 x 2100 MHz]

 MSI-CR70-2MP345W7  (since 2014)   [i5 -P3560 ( 2 x 2600 MHz) ]



























RSID: <<2024-02-22T01:00Z MFSK-128 @ 5850000+1500>>

--- RNEIxtra #3/ RNEI #34x ---
1. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Court Begins on a Blue Note Scale | 逆転裁判 ~開廷のブルーノート・スケール
2. Phoenix Wright ~ Objection! | 成歩堂龍一 ~異議あり!
3. The Steel Samurai: Warrior of Neo Olde Tokyo | 大江戸戦士トノサマン
4. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Justice for All - Court Begins on a Blue Note Scale | 逆転裁判2 ~開廷のブルーノート・スケール
5. Triumphant Return - Miles Edgeworth | 御剣怜侍 ~大いなる復活
6. Furio Tigre ~ Swingin’ Tiger | 芝九蔵虎ノ助 ~スウィンギン・ゼニトラ
7. Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney - Trials and Tribulations - Court Begins on a Blue Note Scale | 逆転裁判3 ~開廷のブルーノート・スケール
8. Godot - The Fragrance of Darkness; That is Coffee | ゴドー ~珈琲は闇色の薫り
9. Rise from the Ashes – Epilogue | 蘇る逆転・終幕
10. Trucy’s Theme ~ Child of Magic | みぬきのテーマ ~魔術の子

Til vi møtes igjen,
Ha det!




RSID: <<2024-02-22T02:28Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>

Radio Carpathia Show #16

1. SKRYABIN - Старі фотографії 🇺🇦
2. AMI - Nostalgia 🇷🇴
3. Dawid Kwiatkowski - Co z nami będzie 🇵🇱
4. Paulina - Odaadom 🇭🇺
5. Bumboks - Наодинці 🇺🇦
6. 3 Sud Est, Andia - Inseparabili 🇷🇴
7. Hrdza - Stefan 🇸🇰
8. Rose's Feature: Dinu Olărașu - N-ai nevoie de foarte multe 🇷🇴
Bonus: Ork. Metin Taifa - Zarzavat 🇧🇬









  RSID: <<2024-0-22T02:52Z MFSK-64 @ 5850000+1500>>


  1. William Kiss - Like This
  2. Kevin McKay, Pupa Nas T & Denise Belfon - Work (CVMPANILE & Draxx Remix)
  3. Harvey McKay - On the Drum
  4. Zoura DS - Que Hora
  5. Mark Knight & D. Ramirez - Colombian Soul (Sllash & Doppe Remix)
  6. Low Steppa & Crusy - This is the Sound

  7. 2pole & Ursula Rucker - Alone
  8. Lady Neon & Atmosline - Mindfucker
  9. Jay Lumen - Venus
 10. Eelke Kleijn - Control (PARADIGM X Remix)
 11. deadmau5 - Imaginary Friends (i_o Remix)

 --- --




RSID: <<2024-02-25T02:30Z MFSK-64 @ 5950000+1500>>


George Thorogood of the Destroyers was born on February 24, 1950.

Sending Pic:170x250;

Please report your decode to


Here is a timeline of "data transmission via BC shortwave":

2013-03-16 - 2017-06-17   VoA Radiogram  000-220  USA (Continuation under private management as SWRG)
2013-08-31 - until now    KBC Radiogram           NL  (without count, earliest note in my chronicle)
2016-03-23 - 2017-01-14   DIGI DX         01- 44  UK  (Among other things also *.mid transferred)
2016-06-17 - 2019-01-01   IBC DIGITAL    001-134  I   (my own count)
2017-06-25 - until now    SWRG           001-3
43  USA (and further ongoing)
2017-11-?? - 2018-12-23   BSR Radiogram   01- 44  USA (Broad Spectrum Radio)
2018-07-25 - 2019-04-06   SSR Radiogram   01- 33  NL  (Slow Scan Radio)
2019-02-21 - 2023-08-03   TIAMS          001-222  CAN (This Is A Music Show)
2020-02-15 - until now    RNEI            01- 48  UK  (and further ongoing)
2020-03-07 - 2023-08-06   TIAEMS 03/2020-07/2023  CAN (This Is An Express Music Show)
2021-11-28 - until now    Pop Shop Radio          CAN (first find of a playlist in a spectrogram scan)
Projects with digital playlists or content:



Active SHOWS:


SWRG - Shortwave Radiogram - Virginia, USA         KD9XB    M.Hirst-SWRG



KBC Radiogram - Virginia ==> Florida, USA          KD9XB ==> WD4AH             KG4LAC-KBC



Radio Northern Europe International - County Hamshire, UK

Radio Carpathia - Transylvania, Romania

Pop Shop Radio - British Columbia, Canada
          Tony Pavick

Radio Catface International -
San Jose, California, USA

CatfaceMcRadio   CatfaceMcVideo



DK Radio - Mr.DoubleK  - Transylvania, Romania [via RNEI]



Data with Jeff - Tennessee, USA  [via Radio Carpathia]  KG4ZIE



Ended SHOWS:


VOA Radiogram - Virginia, USA      ===> SWRG    KD9XB    M.Hirst-VOA



STF Radiogram - Toronto, Canada



BSR Radiogram - Oklahoma, USA                   KG5JST



DIGI DX - Lancashire, UK



SSR Radiogram - Amersfoort, Netherlands         PA0ETE






TIAMS / TIAEMS - Radiogram - Toronto, Canada



Music on Shortwave


HFZone WRMI-B23 Human Readable SKedGrid ++