set MyFiles=*.flac *.fla *.wav *.aif *.mp4 *.mp3 *.mp2 *.aac *.ogg *.m4a
for %%a in (%MyFiles%) do ffmpeg -i "%%a" -y -lavfi showspectrumpic=s=1920x1080:color=fiery:gain=.7:fscale=lin:orientation=0:saturation=1:mode=combined:legend=enabled:start=0:stop=8000 "%%~na.jpg"





RSID: <<2024-04-25ST23:31Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>


Welcome to program 351 of Shortwave Radiogram.

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Arlington, Virginia USA.

Here is the lineup for today's program, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:46 MFSK32: Program preview (now)
  2:51 MFSK32: Voyager 1 spacecraft is returning usable data
  7:12 MFSK64: How autocrats control internet traffic
10:20 MFSK64: This week's images
27:30 MFSK32: Closing announcements

Please send reception reports to

And visit

We're on X/Twitter now: @SWRadiogram


April 22, 2024

For the first time since November, NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft is
returning usable data about the health and status of its onboard
engineering systems. The next step is to enable the spacecraft to
begin returning science data again. The probe and its twin,
Voyager 2, are the only spacecraft to ever fly in interstellar
space (the space between stars).

Voyager 1 stopped sending readable science and engineering data
back to Earth on Nov. 14, 2023, even though mission controllers
could tell the spacecraft was still receiving their commands and
otherwise operating normally. In March, the Voyager engineering
team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California
confirmed that the issue was tied to one of the spacecraft's
three onboard computers, called the flight data subsystem (FDS).
The FDS is responsible for packaging the science and engineering
data before it's sent to Earth.

The team discovered that a single chip responsible for storing a
portion of the FDS memory—including some of the FDS computer's
software code—isn't working. The loss of that code rendered the
science and engineering data unusable. Unable to repair the chip,
the team decided to place the affected code elsewhere in the FDS
memory. But no single location is large enough to hold the
section of code in its entirety.

So they devised a plan to divide the affected code into sections
and store those sections in different places in the FDS. To make
this plan work, they also needed to adjust those code sections to
ensure, for example, that they all still function as a whole. Any
references to the location of that code in other parts of the FDS
memory needed to be updated as well.

The team started by singling out the code responsible for
packaging the spacecraft's engineering data. They sent it to its
new location in the FDS memory on April 18. A radio signal takes
about 22.5 hours to reach Voyager 1, which is over 15 billion
miles (24 billion kilometers) from Earth, and another 22.5 hours
for a signal to come back to Earth. When the mission flight team
heard back from the spacecraft on April 20, they saw that the
modification had worked: For the first time in five months, they
were able to check the health and status of the spacecraft.

During the coming weeks, the team will relocate and adjust the
other affected portions of the FDS software. These include the
portions that will start returning science data.

Voyager 2 continues to operate normally. Launched over 46 years
ago, the twin Voyager spacecraft are the longest-running and most
distant spacecraft in history. Before the start of their
interstellar exploration, both probes flew by Saturn and Jupiter,
and Voyager 2 flew by Uranus and Neptune.


Shortwave Radiogram now changes to MFSK64 ...



RSID: <<2024-04-25ST23:37Z MFSK64 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to





From the University of California-Davis:

How Autocrats Control Internet Traffic Out of Sight

by Andy Fell
April 10, 2024

Authoritarian regimes exert control over the internet through
transit networks that operate largely out of public view,
according to a recent study by researchers in the U.S. and
Germany. The work, published in PNAS Nexus, also shows how more
sophisticated authoritarian regimes extend their influence by
providing network access in poorer but politically similar

"This is a mechanism autocracies seem to prefer, it's a lot less
visible," said Alexander Gamero-Garrido, assistant professor of
computer science at the University of California, Davis, and a
co-author on the paper. The work was led by Eda Keremoglu at the
University of Konstanz, Germany.

Most internet users are familiar with access networks, the
providers that bring internet connections to our homes and
businesses, much like local streets. These access networks in
turn connect to transit networks that carry internet traffic
across large distances and around the world, like freeways. The
companies that operate these transit networks are much less

"They operate in a shadow space, nobody knows about them,"
Gamero-Garrido said.

In the Global North, transit networks have become less relevant
in the past 10 to 15 years as large access networks make deals to
connect with each other, Gamero-Garrido said. But they remain
important in the rest of the world.

Gamero-Garrido, Keremoglu and colleagues used publicly available
Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP, data to see how access and
transit networks are controlled in different countries. These are
large tables of internet addresses that networks announce to each
other so that they can make connections across the World Wide
Web. The researchers ranked countries politically based on an
index of electoral democracy.

They found that overall, there was not much difference in
ownership of access networks between democracies and autocracies.
But in autocracies, state-owned entities had a higher degree of
control over transit networks. This potentially allows the state
to monitor and control internet traffic in a more centralized

"There are at least 75 countries, with a quarter of the world's
internet users, where a small group of transit providers is
dominant, often a single company," Gamero-Garrido said.

The researchers also found that state-owned internet companies
from wealthier autocracies often provide access networks in
poorer autocracies. This creates clusters of technological
cooperation within the internet between non-democratic countries.

Policy implications

For those who advocate open exchange of information on the
internet, revealing how authoritarians manipulate networks is a
first step.

"Almost no one knows about these companies," Gamero-Garrido said.
Some authoritarian leaders might also be susceptible to vanity: a
centralized internet structure is also more prone to failure.

"We can also invest in infrastructure that allows direct
interconnection," Gamero-Garrido said. Such Internet Exchange
Points, or IXPs, which are often funded in part by states, can
provide connections among access networks and reduce reliance on
transit networks. Privately owned facilities known as colocations
or "colos" provide similar benefits, he said.

Additional authors on the paper, which was published Feb. 14,
are: Nils Weidmann, University of Konstanz; Esteban Carisimo,
Northwestern University, Illinois; Alberto Dainotti, Georgia
Institute of Technology; and Alex Snoeren, UC San Diego. The work
was supported in part by grants from the German Research
Foundation and U.S. National Science Foundation.


This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK64

Please send your reception report to





This week's images ...


An Italian stamp marking the 150th birthday (25 April) of
Guglielmo Marconi. ...

Sending Pic:204x161C;





People visit a moss phlox garden in Tokyo. ...

Sending Pic:151x198C;

A pileated woodpecker carves a cavity out of a tree to create a
nest. ...

Sending Pic:208x132C;

A guanaco is silhouetted against the sky in Torres del Paine
National Park, Chile. ...

Sending Pic:200x129C;

A sailboat off North Berwick, Scotland. ...

Sending Pic:139x196C;

The Pink Moon at Burke Lake Park, Fairfax, Virginia, April 23. ...

Sending Pic:125x205C;

The Pink Moon rising, with flowers in foreground, in Washington
DC, April 23. ...

Sending Pic:204x143C;

Blooms on a prickly pear cactus at the Saint Sebastian River
Preserve State Park near Fellsmere, Florida. ...

Sending Pic:197x141C;

An Indigo Bunting at Hempstead Lake State Park, Lakeview, New
York. ...

Sending Pic:196x141C;

Our painting of the week is "Nichols Canyon, Hollywood Hills,
1980" by David Hockney. ...

Sending Pic:149x199C;

Shortwave Radiogram returns to MFSK32 ...




RSID: <<2024-04-25T23:57Z MFSK-32 @ 9265000+1500>>

This is Shortwave Radiogram in MFSK32 ...

Shortwave Radiogram is transmitted by:

WRMI, Radio Miami International,


WINB Shortwave,

Please send reception reports to

And visit

Twitter: @SWRadiogram or

I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next Shortwave





RSID: <<2024-04-25T23:59Z DominoEX 22 @ 9265000+1500>>

Thank you for decoding the modes -- including this surprise mode
DominoEX 22 -- on Shortwave Radiogram.

     SWRG#351 closing song:






 D-06193 Petersberg (Germany/Germania)


 Dipol for 40m-Band    &   Boomerang Antenna 11m-Band

 RX   for  RF:

 FRG-100B + IF-mixer  &    ICOM IC-R75 + IF-mixer

 Software IF:

 con STUDIO1  -  Software italiano per SDR on Windows 11      [S-AM-USB/LSB]   +      HDSDR 2.81 beta6   - for scheduled IF-recording

 Software AF:

 Fldigi-4.1.26        +   flmsg-4.0.20                            images-fldigifiles on homedrive.lnk


 Mirosoft Windows 11 Home

 German W7 32bit + 64bit


 ASUS S501MD (since 2023) [i7-12700 12th Gen. 12 x 2100 MHz]

 MSI-CR70-2MP345W7  (since 2014)   [i5 -P3560 ( 2 x 2600 MHz) ]





























RSID: <<2024-04-27T08:30Z MFSK-64 @ 7780000+1500>>


Cuba Gooding Sr. of The Main Ingredient was born on
April 27, 1944.

He died in 2017.

Sending Pic:203x230;

Please report your decode to











Here is a timeline of "data transmission via BC shortwave":

2013-03-16 - 2017-06-17   VoA Radiogram  000-220  USA (Continuation under private management as SWRG)
2013-08-31 - until now    KBC Radiogram           NL  (without count, earliest note in my chronicle)
2016-03-23 - 2017-01-14   DIGI DX         01- 44  UK  (Among other things also *.mid transferred)
2016-06-17 - 2019-01-01   IBC DIGITAL    001-134  I   (my own count)
2017-06-25 - until now    SWRG           001-3
51  USA (and further ongoing)
2017-11-?? - 2018-12-23   BSR Radiogram   01- 44  USA (Broad Spectrum Radio)
2018-07-25 - 2019-04-06   SSR Radiogram   01- 33  NL  (Slow Scan Radio)
2019-02-21 - 2023-08-03   TIAMS          001-222  CAN (This Is A Music Show)
2020-02-15 - until now    RNEI            01- 4
9  UK  (and further ongoing)
2020-03-07 - 2023-08-06   TIAEMS 03/2020-07/2023  CAN (This Is An Express Music Show)
2021-11-28 - until now    Pop Shop Radio          CAN (first find of a playlist in a spectrogram scan)
Projects with digital playlists or content:



Active SHOWS:


SWRG - Shortwave Radiogram - Virginia, USA         KD9XB    M.Hirst-SWRG



KBC Radiogram - Virginia ==> Florida, USA          KD9XB ==> WD4AH             KG4LAC-KBC

    DX Headlines



Radio Northern Europe International - County Hamshire, UK

Radio Carpathia - Transylvania, Romania

Pop Shop Radio - British Columbia, Canada
          Tony Pavick

Radio Catface International -
San Jose, California, USA

CatfaceMcRadio   CatfaceMcVideo


DK Radio - Mr.DoubleK  - Transylvania, Romania [via RNEI]


Data with Jeff - Tennessee, USA  [via Radio Carpathia]  KG4ZIE


Cult of Show



Ended SHOWS:


VOA Radiogram - Virginia, USA      ===> SWRG    KD9XB    M.Hirst-VOA



STF Radiogram - Toronto, Canada



BSR Radiogram - Oklahoma, USA                   KG5JST



DIGI DX - Lancashire, UK


Emergency Radio                 PA0ETE


SSR Radiogram - Amersfoort, Netherlands         PA0ETE






TIAMS / TIAEMS - Radiogram - Toronto, Canada



Music on Shortwave


HFZone WRMI-B23 Human Readable SKedGrid ++


HFZone WRMI-A24 Human Readable SKedGrid ++



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