www.rhci-online.net/radiogram/radiogram.htm

 


 

 

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                                                                    http://voaradiogram.net/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:02Z MFSK-16 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

 

<STX>

 

 

Welcome to program 32 of VOA Radiogram from the Voice of America.

 

I'm Kim Andrew Elliott in Washington.

 

Here is the lineup for today's program:

 

2:55  MFSK16: Program preview (now)

4:35  MFSK32: Radio France International memorial and logo

1:30  MFSK64: VOA News re SR-32 airplane                                    ===>VoA Radiogram #32 .........   ;-).........."72"

1:53  MFSK64L: Same VOA News story

3:36  MFSK32/64: Artist's conception of SR-32        

 :38  MFSK32: E-mail address

2:17  Thor100: VOA News re earth-sized planets

1:48  MFSK128: Same VOA News story

2:10  MFSK128L: Same VOA News story

1:44  MFSK32 image: Artist's conception of planet Kepler 78b

1:48  MFSK32: Closing announcements/VOA Radiogram logo (500x44)           

 

Please send reception reports to radiogram@voanews.com

 

And visit voaradiogram.net

 

Twitter: @VOARadiogram

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK32...

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:05Z MFSK-32 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

<STX>

 

This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK32...

 

 

Radio France Internationale pays tribute to murdered journalists

Ghislaine Dupont and Claude Verlon

 

By RFI

5 November 2013

 

Staff at Radio France Internationale remained silent for one

minute just after 12.30 pm on Tuesday in honour of Ghislaine

Dupont and Claude Verlon, the journalist and sound technician who

were killed in Kidal in northern Mali on Saturday.

 

The management of RFI, as well as close colleagues who were

working elsewhere in Mali on Saturday, spoke movingly to a sombre

gathering at RFI headquarters just outside Paris, of the moments

immediately before and after they heard the news.

 

One of Claude Verlon's former colleagues described how the Malian

president was on two occasions moved to tears while talking of

the murders.

 

Members of the Malian government had paid homage to the French

journalists at Bamako airport on Monday evening, before the plane

carrying their bodies left for Paris.

 

President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita had referred to Dupont, who had

worked as a correspondent in Africa for many years, as "his own

daughter."

 

On Sunday evening, hundreds of journalists had marched in silence

through the streets of Bamako to pay their respects to the two

RFI reporters.

 

"We organised this silent march to say 'never again' - the

perpetrators of this crime must be punished," said Makan Kone,

president of the capital's media association, the Bamako Press

House.

 

MPs in the French lower House of Parliament also observed a

minute's silence just after 3 o'clock.

 

Ghislaine Dupont, 57, and Claude Verlon, 55, were kidnapped and

killed outside Kidal in northeastern Mali on Saturday, just after

conducting an interview with a Tuareg leader.

 

 

Al Qaeda claims RFI journalists' murder

 

By RFI

6 November 2013

 

Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb has claimed responsibility for

last weekend's murder of RFI's Ghislaine Dupont and Claude Veron,

according to Mauritanian website Sahara Medias. The killings were

a reprisal for the French offensive in northern Mali, the group

said.

 

 

MFSK32 image follows: RFI special logo to mark the loss of its

two colleagues...

 

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

<STX>

 

Sending Pic:107x106C;

 

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

<STX>

 

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram from the Voice of America.

 

VOA Radiogram continues its experiments with the new

long-interleave MFSK modes.

 

Next will be a VOA News story in MFSK64, followed by the same

story in MFSK64L...

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

SAM-LSB

SAM-LSB

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:09Z MFSK-64 @ 17860000+1500>>

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:11Z MFSK-64L @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

 

Hypersonic Plane on the Drawing Board

 

VOA News

November 04, 2013

 

The successor to the world's fastest plane is in the works,

according to Lockheed Martin.

 

The hypersonic SR-72, when operational, could boast speeds up to

Mach 6, six times the speed of sound, and double the speed of the

now-retired SR-71 Blackbird, which has held the speed record

since 1976.

 

In a statement, Lockheed Martin said the "son of Blackbird" would

be so fast that "an adversary would have no time to react or

hide." The plane is likely to be unmanned.

 

"Hypersonic aircraft, coupled with hypersonic missiles, could

penetrate denied airspace and strike at nearly any location

across a continent in less than an hour," said Brad Leland,

Lockheed Martin program manager, Hypersonics. "Speed is the next

aviation advancement to counter emerging threats in the next

several decades.

 

Many of the advancements planned for the SR-72 come from the

rocket-launched Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 (HTV-2)

developed by Lockheed Martin and the Defense Advanced Research

Projects Agency.

 

The HTV-2 research and development project was designed to

collect data on the technical challenges of hypersonic flight:

aerodynamics, aerothermal effects,  and guidance, navigation and

control.

 

The SR-72's design incorporates lessons learned from the HTV-2,

which flew to a top speed of Mach 20, or 13,000 mph, with a

surface temperature of 3500F.

 

The company said the SR-72 could be operational by 2030.

 

 

Next on VOA Radiogram, the same VOA News story in MFSK64L...

 

 

 

 

<EOT>

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK64L...

 

 

Hypersonic Plane on the Drawing Board

 

VOA News

November 04, 2013

 

The successor to the world's fastest plane is in the works,

according to Lockheed Martin.

 

The hypersonic SR-72, when operational, could boast speeds up to

Mach 6, six times the speed of sound, and double the speed of the

now-retired SR-71 Blackbird, which has held the speed record

since 1976.

 

In a statement, Lockheed Martin said the "son of Blackbird" would

be so fast that "an adversary would have no time to react or

hide." The plane is likely to be unmanned.

 

"Hypersonic aircraft, coupled with hypersonic missiles, could

penetrate denied airspace and strike at nearly any location

across a continent in less than an hour," said Brad Leland,

Lockheed Martin program manager, Hypersonics. "Speed is the next

aviation advancement to counter emerging threats in the next

several decades.

 

Many of the advancements planned for the SR-72 come from the

rocket-launched Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 (HTV-2)

developed by Lockheed Martin and the Defense Advanced Research

Projects Agency.

 

The HTV-2 research and development project was designed to

collect data on the technical challenges of hypersonic flight:

aerodynamics, aerothermal effects,  and guidance, navigation and

control.

 

The SR-72's design incorporates lessons learned from the HTV-2,

which flew to a top speed of Mach 20, or 13,000 mph, with a

surface temperature of 3500F.

 

The company said the SR-72 could be operational by 2030.

 

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK32

.

.

.

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:12Z MFSK-32 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

<STX>

 

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK32.

 

Next, an image with the caption: The SR-72, as seen in this

artist's conception, could fly up to six times the speed of

sound. (Lockheed Martin).

 

It will be transmitted in MFSK32, then again in MFSK64...

 

<EOT>

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:13Z MFSK-32 @ 17860000+1500>>

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:14Z MFSK-64 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

<STX>

 

Sending Pic:212x119C;

 

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

<STX>

 

Sending Pic:212x119C;

 

 

<EOT>

 

<STX>

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK32...

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:16Z MFSK-32 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

<STX>

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK32...

 

 

Please send reception reports to radiogram@voanews.com

 

And visit voaradiogram.net

 

Twitter: @VOARadiogram

 

VOA Radiogram will now transmit the same VOA News story in three

modes: Thor100, MFSK128, and MFSK128L.

 

Now changing to Thor100...

 

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

SAM - LSB   and/or   SAM-USB

THOR 100

MFSK-128

MFSK-128L

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:17Z THOR 100 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:19Z MFSK-128 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:21Z MFSK-128L @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

<STX>

 

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in Thor100...

 

 

VOA NEWS

 

Study Finds Billions of Earth-like Planets

 

Rick Pantaleo

November 05, 2013

 

Astronomers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the

University of Hawaii, Manoa say that based on new analysis of

Kepler spacecraft data, one in five stars similar to our own sun

are orbited by planets about the size of Earth, with a surface

temperature that would be favorable to support life.

 

"What this means is, when you look up at the thousands of stars

in the night sky, the nearest sun-like star with an Earth-size

planet in its habitable zone is probably only 12 light years away

and can be seen with the naked eye," said UC Berkeley graduate

student Erik Petigura, who led the analysis of the Kepler data.

"That is amazing."

 

Petigura, along with his colleagues Geoffrey Marcy from UC

Berkeley and Andrew Howard from the University of Hawaii, have

had their analysis published online in the journal Proceedings of

the National Academy of Sciences.

 

The researchers point out that just because an exoplanet is

Earth-sized or is in an Earth-sized orbit does not automatically

mean that it can to support life, even if their orbits are within

a star's habitable zone, where temperatures are not too hot or

too cold.

 

"Some may have thick atmospheres, making it so hot at the surface

that DNA-like molecules would not survive," Marcy said. "Others

may have rocky surfaces that could harbor liquid water suitable

for living organisms. We don't know what range of planet types

and their environments are suitable for life."

 

Last week Marcy, Howard and their colleagues made news when they

announced that they found Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized exoplanet

with the same density and a core made up of the same mixture of

rock and iron as our own planet.

 

But since it orbits so close to its star, this newly-discovered

rocky planet has a blazing surface temperature of about 2,200

degrees Kelvin, which is far too hot to support life as we know

it.

 

The team focused on 42,000 stars that are like the sun or

slightly cooler and smaller. Among those stars, the researchers

said they found 603 candidate planets orbiting them. Of these

candidate exoplanets, only 10 were Earth-sized, meaning that they

were about one to two times the diameter of Earth and orbiting

their star at a distance that would provide life supporting

temperatures.

 

To find how many other Earth-sized planets residing in habitable

zones they missed in their search, the researchers put

planet-finding algorithms devised by Petigura through a number of

tests. In these tests, Petigura actually threw in some fake

planets into the actual Kepler data to find out which planets his

software could detect and which it couldn't.

 

"What we're doing is taking a census of extrasolar planets, but

we can't knock on every door. Only after injecting these fake

planets and measuring how many we actually found, could we really

pin down the number of real planets that we missed," Petigura

said.

 

Taking several factors into consideration, such these missing

planets, and that only a small number of Earth-like exoplanets

are situated in such way that they can be seen transiting in

front of their host stars from Earth, the team estimated that 22

percent of all sun-like stars in the galaxy have Earth-size

planets in their habitable zones.

 

"Until now, no one knew exactly how common potentially habitable

planets were around Sun-like stars in the galaxy," said Marcy.

 

Although they found all of the possibly habitable planets

circling around cooler K stars, or Orange Dwarfs, which are

somewhat smaller than our sun, the researchers said that the

results of their analysis could also be inferred to G stars like

the sun.

 

The researchers speculated that if the Kepler spacecraft hadn't

been crippled by technical malfunctions this past spring and was

able to fully continue its research mission, it would have been

able to gather enough data to directly detect some Earth-size

planets in the habitable zones of G-type stars.

 

This new, more thorough analysis of Kepler data made by the

researchers shows that "nature makes about as many planets in

hospitable orbits as in close-in orbits," said Howard.

 

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK128...

 

<EOT>

 

<STX>

 

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK128...

 

 

VOA NEWS

 

Study Finds Billions of Earth-like Planets

 

Rick Pantaleo

November 05, 2013

 

Astronomers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the

University of Hawaii, Manoa say that based on new analysis of

Kepler spacecraft data, one in five stars similar to our own sun

are orbited by planets about the size of Earth, with a surface

temperature that would be favorable to support life.

 

"What this means is, when you look up at the thousands of stars

in the night sky, the nearest sun-like star with an Earth-size

planet in its habitable zone is probably only 12 light years away

and can be seen with the naked eye," said UC Berkeley graduate

student Erik Petigura, who led the analysis of the Kepler data.

"That is amazing."

 

Petigura, along with his colleagues Geoffrey Marcy from UC

Berkeley and Andrew Howard from the University of Hawaii, have

had their analysis published online in the journal Proceedings of

the National Academy of Sciences.

 

The researchers point out that just because an exoplanet is

Earth-sized or is in an Earth-sized orbit does not automatically

mean that it can to support life, even if their orbits are within

a star's habitable zone, where temperatures are not too hot or

too cold.

 

"Some may have thick atmospheres, making it so hot at the surface

that DNA-like molecules would not survive," Marcy said. "Others

may have rocky surfaces that could harbor liquid water suitable

for living organisms. We don't know what range of planet types

and their environments are suitable for life."

 

Last week Marcy, Howard and their colleagues made news when they

announced that they found Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized exoplanet

with the same density and a core made up of the same mixture of

rock and iron as our own planet.

 

But since it orbits so close to its star, this newly-discovered

rocky planet has a blazing surface temperature of about 2,200

degrees Kelvin, which is far too hot to support life as we know

it.

 

The team focused on 42,000 stars that are like the sun or

slightly cooler and smaller. Among those stars, the researchers

said they found 603 candidate planets orbiting them. Of these

candidate exoplanets, only 10 were Earth-sized, meaning that they

were about one to two times the diameter of Earth and orbiting

their star at a distance that would provide life supporting

temperatures.

 

To find how many other Earth-sized planets residing in habitable

zones they missed in their search, the researchers put

planet-finding algorithms devised by Petigura through a number of

tests. In these tests, Petigura actually threw in some fake

planets into the actual Kepler data to find out which planets his

software could detect and which it couldn't.

 

"What we're doing is taking a census of extrasolar planets, but

we can't knock on every door. Only after injecting these fake

planets and measuring how many we actually found, could we really

pin down the number of real planets that we missed," Petigura

said.

 

Taking several factors into consideration, such these missing

planets, and that only a small number of Earth-like exoplanets

are situated in such way that they can be seen transiting in

front of their host stars from Earth, the team estimated that 22

percent of all sun-like stars in the galaxy have Earth-size

planets in their habitable zones.

 

"Until now, no one knew exactly how common potentially habitable

planets were around Sun-like stars in the galaxy," said Marcy.

 

Although they found all of the possibly habitable planets

circling around cooler K stars, or Orange Dwarfs, which are

somewhat smaller than our sun, the researchers said that the

results of their analysis could also be inferred to G stars like

the sun.

 

The researchers speculated that if the Kepler spacecraft hadn't

been crippled by technical malfunctions this past spring and was

able to fully continue its research mission, it would have been

able to gather enough data to directly detect some Earth-size

planets in the habitable zones of G-type stars.

 

This new, more thorough analysis of Kepler data made by the

researchers shows that "nature makes about as many planets in

hospitable orbits as in close-in orbits," said Howard.

 

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK128L...

 

<EOT>

 

 <STX>

  

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK128L

 

 

VOA NEWS

 

Study Finds Billions of Earth-like Planets

 

Rick Pantaleo

November 05, 2013

 

Astronomers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the

University of Hawaii, Manoa say that based on new analysis of

Kepler spacecraft data, one in five stars similar to our own sun

are orbited by planets about the size of Earth, with a surface

temperature that would be favorable to support life.

 

"What this means is, when you look up at the thousands of stars

in the night sky, the nearest sun-like star with an Earth-size

planet in its habitable zone is probably only 12 light years away

and can be seen with the naked eye," said UC Berkeley graduate

student Erik Petigura, who led the analysis of the Kepler data.

"That is amazing."

 

Petigura, along with his colleagues Geoffrey Marcy from UC

Berkeley and Andrew Howard from the University of Hawaii, have

had their analysis published online in the journal Proceedings of

the National Academy of Sciences.

 

The researchers point out that just because an exoplanet is

Earth-sized or is in an Earth-sized orbit does not automatically

mean that it can to support life, even if their orbits are within

a star's habitable zone, where temperatures are not too hot or

too cold.

 

"Some may have thick atmospheres, making it so hot at the surface

that DNA-like molecules would not survive," Marcy said. "Others

may have rocky surfaces that could harbor liquid water suitable

for living organisms. We don't know what range of planet types

and their environments are suitable for life."

 

Last week Marcy, Howard and their colleagues made news when they

announced that they found Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized exoplanet

with the same density and a core made up of the same mixture of

rock and iron as our own planet.

 

But since it orbits so close to its star, this newly-discovered

rocky planet has a blazing surface temperature of about 2,200

degrees Kelvin, which is far too hot to support life as we know

it.

 

The team focused on 42,000 stars that are like the sun or

slightly cooler and smaller. Among those stars, the researchers

said they found 603 candidate planets orbiting them. Of these

candidate exoplanets, only 10 were Earth-sized, meaning that they

were about one to two times the diameter of Earth and orbiting

their star at a distance that would provide life supporting

temperatures.

 

To find how many other Earth-sized planets residing in habitable

zones they missed in their search, the researchers put

planet-finding algorithms devised by Petigura through a number of

tests. In these tests, Petigura actually threw in some fake

planets into the actual Kepler data to find out which planets his

software could detect and which it couldn't.

 

"What we're doing is taking a census of extrasolar planets, but

we can't knock on every door. Only after injecting these fake

planets and measuring how many we actually found, could we really

pin down the number of real planets that we missed," Petigura

said.

 

Taking several factors into consideration, such these missing

planets, and that only a small number of Earth-like exoplanets

are situated in such way that they can be seen transiting in

front of their host stars from Earth, the team estimated that 22

percent of all sun-like stars in the galaxy have Earth-size

planets in their habitable zones.

 

"Until now, no one knew exactly how common potentially habitable

planets were around Sun-like stars in the galaxy," said Marcy.

 

Although they found all of the possibly habitable planets

circling around cooler K stars, or Orange Dwarfs, which are

somewhat smaller than our sun, the researchers said that the

results of their analysis could also be inferred to G stars like

the sun.

 

The researchers speculated that if the Kepler spacecraft hadn't

been crippled by technical malfunctions this past spring and was

able to fully continue its research mission, it would have been

able to gather enough data to directly detect some Earth-size

planets in the habitable zones of G-type stars.

 

This new, more thorough analysis of Kepler data made by the

researchers shows that "nature makes about as many planets in

hospitable orbits as in close-in orbits," said Howard.

.

.

.

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

AM

THOR 100

MFSK-128

MFSK-128L

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:17Z THOR 100 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:19Z MFSK-128 @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

RSID: <<2013-11-09T16:21Z MFSK-128L @ 17860000+1500>>

 

 

 

<STX>

 

 

 

This is VOA Radiogram in Thor100...

 

 

VOA NEWS

 

Study Finds Billions of Earth-like Planets

 

Rick Pantaleo

November 05, 2013

 

Astronomers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the

University of Hawaii, Manoa say that based on new analysis of

Kepler sraft data, one in five stars similar to our own sun

are orbited by planets about the size of Earth, with a surface

temperature that would be favorable to support life.

 

"What this means is, when you look up at the thousands of stars

in the night sky, the nearest sun-like star with an Earth-size

planet in its habitable zone is probably only 12 light years away

and can be seen with the naked eye," said UC Berkeley graduate

student Erik Petigura, who led the analysis of the Kepler data.

"That is amazing."

 

Petigura, along with his colleagues Geoffrey Marcy from UC

Berkeley and Andrew Howard from the University of Hawaii, have

had their analysis published online in the journal Proceedings of

the National Academy of Sciences.

 

The researchers point out that just because an exoplanet is

Earth-sized or is in an Earth-sized orbit does not automatically

mean that it can to support life, even if their orbits are within

a star's habitable zone, where temperatures are not too hot or

too cold.

 

"Some may have thick atmospheres, making it so hot at the surface

that DNA-like molecules would not survive," Marcy said. "Others

may have rocky surfaces that could harbor liquid water suitable

for living organisms. We don't know what range of planet types

and their environments are suitahisr life."

 

Last week Marcy, Howard and their colleagues made news when they

announced that they found Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized exoplanet

with the same density and a core made up of the same mixture of

rock and iron as our own planet.

 

But since it orbits so close to its star, this newly-discovered

rocky planet has a bhj surface tempwt LVti ot5e  ttlZrDals Kelvin, which is far too hot to support life as we know

it.

 

The team focused on 42,000 stars that are like the sun or

slightly cooler and smaller. Among those stars, the researchers

said they found 603 candidate planets orbiting them. Of these

candxdLopets,   tdMn eu vxiseonLJcrl te k^itepe

were about one to two times the diameter of Earth and orbiting

their star at a distance that would provide life supporting

temperatures.

 

To find how many other Earth-sized planets residing in habitable

zones they missed in their search, the researchers put

planet-finding algorithms devised by Petigura through a number of

tests. In these tests, Petigura actually threw in some fake

planets into  ieslal Kepler data to find out which planets his

software could detect and which it couldn't.

 

"What we're doing is taking a census of extroeBp{ ot# cxm<ETX>ck on every door. Only after injecting these fake

planets and measuring how macl6ylzally found, could we really

pin down the number of real planets that we missed," Petigura

said.

 

Taking several factors into consideration, such these missing

planets, and that only a small number of Earth-like exoplanets

are situated in such way that they vt mcnu<s  O7front of theiettars from Earth, the team estimated that 22

percent of all sun-linp".Z <SUB> 8Ttl se=o/l PPsraFs biahe !<DC4>e  <ETX>ji?ZtcVa a<SYN>l< cuetly how common potentially habitable

planets were around Sun-like stars in the galaxy," said Marcy.

uiAlioghWtl etiupentlx<ESC>a  z Nor52a /  lgwIler K stars, or Orange Dwarfs, which aresomewhat smaller thaa our sdq  i?dl oY<DC4>xE0ag ObtO d Dl Clth$xlT 7t @  also be inferred to G stars like

the sun.

 

The researchers speculated that if the Kepler spacecraft hadn't

been crdh joy ayvttl

en hoemelxpr puel5 vk fully continue its research mission, it would have been

able to gather enough data to directly detect some Earth-size

planets in the habitable zones of G-type stars.

 

This new, more thorough analysis of Kepler data made by the

researchers shows that "nature makes about as many planets in

hospitable orbits as in close-in orbits," said Howard.

 

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK128...

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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VOA NEWS

 

Study Finds Billions of Earth-like Planets

 

Rick Pantaleo

November 05, 2013

 

Astronomers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the

University of Hawaii, Manoa say that based on new analysis of

Kepler spacecraft data, one in five stars similar to our own sun

are orbited by planets about the size of Earth, with a surface

temperature that would be favorable to support life.

 

"What this means is, when you look up at the thousands of stars

in the night sky, the nearest sun-like star with an Earth-size

planet in its habitable zolett ncoitly 12 light years away

and can be seen with the naked eye," said UC Berkeley graduate

student Erik Petigura, who led the analysis of the Kepler data.

"That is amazing."

 

Petigura, along with his colleagues Geoffrey Marcy from UC

Berkeley and Andrew Howard from the University of Hawaii, have

had their analysis published online in the journal Proceedings of

the Nationl  ct-WnSlences.

 

The researchers point out that just because an exoplanet is

Earth-sized or is in an Earth-sized orbit does not automatically

mean tbdh <trq  Dtport life, even if their orbits are within

a star's habitable zone, where temperatures are not too hot or

too cold.

 

"Some may have thick atmospheres, making it so hot at the surface

that DNA-like molecules would not survive," Marcy said. "Others

may have rocky surfaces that could harbor liquid water suitable

for living organisms. We don't know what range of planet types

and their environments are suitable for life."

 

Last week Marcy, Howard and their colleagues made news when they

announced that they found Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized exoplanet

with the same density and a core made up of the same mixture of

rock and iron as our hs qRUf U iailince it orbits so close to its star, this newly-discovered

rocky planet has a blazing surface temperature of about 2,200

degrees Kelvin, which is far too hot to support life as we know

it.

 

The team focused on 42,000 stars that are like the sun or

slightly cooler and smaller. Amou zeqs,Kt  dt <NAK>e,m)Ox they found 603 candidate planets orbiting them. Of these

candidate exoplanets, only 10 were Earth-sized, meaninTlaeacj5were about one to two times the diameter of Earth and orbiting

their star at a distance that would provide life supporting

temperatures.

 

To find how many other Earth-sized planets residing in habitable

zones they missed in their search, the researchers p

Atht<ACK>n-finding algorithms devised by Petigura through a number of

tests. In these tests, Petigura actually threw in some fake

planets into the actual Kepler data to find out which planets his

software could detect and which it couldn't.

 

"What we're doing is taking a census of extrasolar planets, but

wBo tlleikk el ty door. Only after injecting these fake

planets and measuring how many we actually found, could we really

pin down the number of real planets that we missed," Petigura

said.

 

Taking several factors into consideration, such these missing

planets, and that only a small number of Earth-like exoplanets

are situated in such way that they canlD : BoAzl]

front of their host stars from Earth, the team estimated that 22

percent of all sun-like stars in the galaxy have Earth-size

planets in their habitable zones.

 

"Until now, no one knew exactly how common potentially habitable

planets were around Sun-like stars in the galaxy," said Marcy.

 

Although they found all of the possibly habitable planets

circling around cooler K stars, or Orange Dwarfs, which are

somewhat smaller than our sun, the researchers said that the

results of their analysis could also be inferred to G stars like

the sun.

 

The researchers speculated that if the Kepler spacecraft hadn't

been crippled by technical malfunctions this past spring and was

able to fully continue its research mission, it would have been

able to gather enough data to directly detect some Earth-size

planets in the habitable zones of G-type stars.

 

This new, more thorough analysis of Kepler data made by the

researchers shows that "nature makes about as many planets in

hospitable orbits as in close-in orbits," said Howard.

 

 

VOA Radiogram now changes to MFSK128L...

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

 

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This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK128L

 

 

VOA NEWS

 

Study Finds Billions of Earth-like Planets

 

Rick Pantaleo

November 05, 2013

 

Astronomers from the University of California, Berkeley, and the

University of Hawaii, Manoa say that based on new analysis of

Kepler spacecraft data, one in five stars similar to our own sun

are orbited by planets about the size of Earth, with a surface

temperature that would be favorable to support life.

 

"What this means is, when you look up at the thousands of stars

in the night sky, the nearest sun-like star with an Earth-size

planet in its habitable zone is probably only 12 light years away

and can be seen with the naked eye," said UC Berkeley graduate

student Erik Petigura, who led the analysis of the Kepler data.

"That is amazing."

 

Petigura, along with his colleagues Geoffrey Marcy from UC

Berkeley and Andrew Howard from the University of Hawaii, have

had their analysis published online in the journal Proceedings of

the National Academy of Sciences.

 

The researchers point out that just because an exoplanet is

Earth-sized or is in an Earth-sized orbit does not automatically

mean that it can to support life, even if their orbits are within

a star's habitable zone, where temperatures are not too hot or

too cold.

 

"Some may have thick atmospheres, making it so hot at the surface

that DNA-like molecules would not survive," Marcy said. "Others

may have rocky surfaces that could harbor liquid water suitable

for living organisms. We don't know what range of planet types

and their environments are suitable for life."

 

Last week Marcy, Howard and their colleagues made news when they

announced that they found Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized exoplanet

with the same density and a core made up of the same mixture of

rock and iron as our own planet.

 

But since it orbits so close to its star, this newly-discovered

rocky planet has a blazing surface temperature of about 2,200

degrees Kelvin, which is far too hot to support life as we know

it.

 

The team focused on 42,000 stars that are like the sun or

slightly cooler and smaller. Among those stars, the researchers

said they found 603 candidate planets orbiting them. Of these

candidate exoplanets, only 10 were Earth-sized, meaning that they

were about one to two times the diameter of Earth and orbiting

their star at a distance that would provide life supporting

temperatures.

 

To find how many other Earth-sized planets residing in habitable

zones they missed in their search, the researchers put

planet-finding algorithms devised by Petigura through a number of

tests. In these tests, Petigura actually threw in some fake

planets into the actual Kepler data to find out which planets his

software could detect and which it couldn't.

 

"What we're doing is taking a census of extrasolar planets, but

we can't knock on every door. Only after injecting these fake

planets and measuring how many we actually found, could we really

pin down the number of real planets that we missed," Petigura

said.

 

Taking several factors into consideration, such these missing

planets, and that only a small number of Earth-like exoplanets

are situated in such way that they can be seen transiting in

front of their host stars from Earth, the team estimated that 22

percent of all sun-like stars in the galaxy have Earth-size

planets in their habitable zones.

 

"Until now, no one knew exactly how common potentially habitable

planets were around Sun-like stars in the galaxy," said Marcy.

 

Although they found all of the possibly habitable planets

circling around cooler K stars, or Orange Dwarfs, which are

somewhat smaller than our sun, the researchers said that the

results of their analysis could also be inferred to G stars like

the sun.

 

The researchers speculated that if the Kepler spacecraft hadn't

been crippled by technical malfunctions this past spring and was

able to fully continue its research mission, it would have been

able to gather enough data to directly detect some Earth-size

planets in the habitable zones of G-type stars.

 

This new, more thorozfrvlysis of Kepler data made by the

researchers shows that "nature makes about as many planets in

hospitable orbits as in close-in orbits," said Howard.

.

.

.

.

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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This is VOA Radiogram in MFSK32.

 

Image follows with the caption: Artist's impression of the planet

Kepler-78b and its host star (Karen Teramura/UHIfA) ...

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

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<EOT>

 

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Twitter: @VOARadiogram

 

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I'm Kim Elliott. Please join us for the next VOA Radiogram.

 

This is VOA, the Voice of America.

 

<EOT>

 

 

 

 

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<EOT>

 

 

 

 

 

 

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